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  • forehead: sloping or concave
    D VIII + I, 8-11, well separated
    scales large, rough
    lower jaw strongly protruding
    A: III large
    LL: to end tail fin
  • D VII-X + 0-I, 7-10
    rear top jaw bone exposed when mouth closed
    operculum: 1-2 flat points or several spines
    A II-III, 6-9
  • D deep notch, long base
    chin: +/- pores, knob, barbels
    notch at top corner operculum
    A I-II
    LL: to end C
  • D continuous
    closed mouth - rear of top jaw bone usually exposed
    roof of mouth - small teeth
    3 opercular spines
    A III