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  • head large, bony, with crests & spines
    any snout projections - short
    D IX-XI + 11-14
    pectoral: first 3 rays long, free
    body scaled
  • head in bony shield
    preopercle long spine
    pectoral = large wing
  • head large, bony, spiny
    snout with 2 bony plates
    D VII-VIII + 17-20
    armor & spines cover body
    under mouth - barbels
    pectoral - 2 long free rays + fin
  • snout short, translucent, cónical
    eye large, with fatty eyelid
    2 Ds, short bases, well separated
    pectoral - 3-16 long free filaments under fin
    LL to end C
  • head large, spiny
    horizontal bony ridge under eye
    D VIII-XVIII (spines strong, venomous)
    spines: opercle 2, preopercle 3-5