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  • face rim: edge straight, ends in wide right angle
    rostral plates v long, slender
    barbels: lip 1; chin 0 (0-1 filamentous)
    pectoral: base & outer edge black
    D1 outer black spot
    D2 & A: black edge
  • head broad, rim wide, ends in strong spine
    rostral plates short, broad
    large nasal spine
    barbels: lip 1 v long, chin 31-42
  • face rim: wide, rippled edge, ends in wide, blunt triangle
    rostral plates short, broad, triangular
    Ds & pectoral: outer 1/2 black
    barbells: lip - 1 v long + 5; chin 11-13
  • face rim v narrow
    rostral plates long, narrow
    2Ds - central red stripe
    body slender, rectangular
    barbels: lip 5; chin 26-36
    bicolored: red above, white below
  • face rim v rippled & serrated, ends in flat triangle
    snout plates long, narrow
    pectoral: dark bars + edge white
    barbells: lip - 1 long filament + 4; chin 12-13
    center rear back: spines 2-pointed
  • head narrow, rim v narrow, ends in small spine
    snout plates medium, narrow
    eye yellow
    pectoral: many thin red bars
    pectoral: 1st free ray > fin
    barbells: lip 5-7 short; chin 17-23
  • head v broad; face rim wide, ends in broad wing
    rostral plates medium, narro
    Ds, C y pectoral: outer 1/3-2/3 dark
    barbels: round, large tips; lip -1 filament + 2 (separate), chin - 12-13
  • head broad; rim wide, undulating, ends in wide wing
    rostral plates v short
    barbels: lip - 1 v long filament + 2, slender, chin - 8-9 in 4-5 clusters (each with 1 large)
    nostrils: strong curved spines
    pectoral: dark upper base, outer 2/3 black
    C: base dark bar, top 1/2 outer 1/3 black
  • head long, narrow
    narrow & concave between eyes
    face rim v narrow, ends in small spine
    pectorals & eye yellow
    rostral plates long, narrow
    barbells: lip - 1 short filament + 5-7; chin 34-57
    pectoral: 1st free ray < fin
    bicolored - pink over white
  • head v broad, wide between eyes
    face rim not wide, end - sharp, flat spine
    rostral plates v short, broad
    barbells: lip - short filament + 5-12; chin - 12-18
  • head medium wide
    barbells: lip - short filament + 5-6; chin 17-20
    face rim medium wide, undulating, serrated, end - flat triangular wing, rear edge forward
    rostral plates medium, < snout
  • head medium wide
    face rim: undulating, spiny, end - wide triangular wing
    barbells; lip - v long filament + 4; chin 8-9
    top rear back spines - 1 point
    pectoral: 1st free ray v long
    rostral plates: medium length, < snout
    pectoral center - black spot
    inside mouth v dark