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  • head low, wide, spongy, translucent
    chin 4 pores
    mouth large, oblique, opens at front
    dark band behind front teeth
    gill rakers long, 43-49, 1st arch dark
    preoperculum 6-9 spines
    scales atop head smooth + 1-2 rows rough on center nape
  • head low, wide, translucent, not spongy
    eye small
    top lip: dark moustache
    chin 6 pores
    mouth opens slightly under snout
    no dark band behind teeth
    gill rakers 27-34, 1st arch pale
    preopercle 4-6 spines
  • head low, wide, spongy, translucent
    inside gill chamber dark
    D 21-23
    centerline nape: 0-few rough scales, not in rows
    gill rakers 52-59
    chin 6 pores
    preopercle 2 strong spines
  • head low, wide, spongy, translucent
    eye large
    chin 6 pores
    mouth opens at front
    no dark band behind teeth
    gill rakers 32-36, 1st arch pale
    preoperculum 4-6 strong spines
  • head low, wide, spongy, translucent
    eye small
    D X
    mouth opens at front
    lower jaw: central row teeth not enlarged
    preopercle > 4 spines
    gill rakers short, 27-29
    pelvic long
    scales atop nape rough to between eyes
  • head low, wide, spongy, translucent
    eye small
    D1 X
    lower jaw: center row teeth slightly enlarged
    gill rakers short, 20-24
    preopercle >10 spines
    A 9
    head scales smooth, 1-3 rows rough scales center nape
  • head low, wide, spongy, translucent
    eye large
    D X
    mouth under snout
    lower jaw: central row teeth not enlarged
    gill rakers short, 22-26
    preopercle 7-10 short spines
    pelvic short
    scales atop head rough to between eyes
  • head low, wide, spongy, translucent
    D 21-23
    gill rakers 40-50
    chin 6 pores
    preopercle 2 strong spines
    inside operculum & mouth black
    scales smooth on head except centerline nape: 1-several rows rough scales
  • head low, wide, spongy, translucent
    operculum & roof mouth black
    mouth opens under snout
    chin 6 pores
    gill rakers long, 37-40
    preopercle 6-9 spines
  • head cónical, deep, not spongy
    D1 XI
    lower teeth: center row slightly enlarged
    chin 6 pores
    gill rakers 28-32
    preopercle 6-7 short spines
    A 8
    1-3 rows rough scales on centerline of nape
  • head low, wide, spongy, translucent
    D 17-20
    gill rakers 33-39
    preoperculum: 3 strong spines
    head scales smooth
  • head low, wide, firm, with front ridges
    eye large
    D X
    mouth under snout
    lower jaw: central row teeth not enlarged
    gill rakers short, 25-31
    preopercle 7-10 short spines
    pelvic short
    scales atop head rough to between eyes