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  • mouth opens at front of snout, dark
    behind last gill slit: large dark semicircle
    pale shoulder blotch - long hook on inside
    lower teeth: band 65-70% mouth width, 12-16 rows
  • head: horns long, front not concave
    wings not strongly curved
    tail: < disc, base compressed, no spine
    mouth under head
    spiracle: small, circular, under pectoral, with groove to over eye
    underneath not abruptly bicolored
  • mouth opens at front of snout, pale
    behind last gill slit: 0-2 small dark spots
    pale shoulder blotch - oval inside, hook outside
    lower teeth: band 77% mouth width, 9-11 rows
  • head: narrow, long neck
    horns short
    wings strongly curved
    back with central ridge
    tail short, scaly, no spine
    mouth under snout
    spiracle = elongate slit above pectoral base, with keel above
    underneath: front white, rear abruptly grey
    >3m