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  • snout > eye
    back blue; dark shoulder spot
    Alosa aestivalis, Blueback herring, Blueback shad
    top edge of lower jaw rises steeply within mouth
    gill rakers 41-51
    jaw teeth minute/absent
    lining of gut cavity dark/black
  • vague shoulder spot
    Alosa alabamae, Alabama shad
    lower jaw not projecting, top edge not rising steeply within mouth
    gill rakers 41-48
    no teeth
  • body depth < head length
    shoulder: no dark spot
    Alosa chrysochloris, Skipjack herring, Skipjack shad
    lower jaw projecting, its top edge not rising steeply within mouth
    jaw teeth present
    gill rakers 20-24
  • dark shoulder spot
    Alosa sapidissima, American shad
    lower jaw not projecting, its top edge not rising steeply within mouth
    jaw teeth minute/absent
    gill rakers 59-73