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  • disc center: only thorns - 1 pr nape
    top uniform; bottom darker
    inconspicuous pores under snout
    tail thorns: 1 row 12-15 + 1 between Ds
    Dipturus bullisi, Bullis' skate
  • thorns disc center: shoulders + 1 row ~36 nape to D
    top uniform color
    pores under snout black
    Dipturus garricki, San Blas skate
  • center disc no thorns
    top + dark spots
    distance between Ds ~ base D1
    top brown + dark spots; bottom grey/black
    pores under snout dark
    tail: side thorns not hooked
    tail thorns: 3 rows, center - 13-26 + 3-6 between Ds
    Dipturus olseni, Spreadfin skate, Olsen’s spreadskate, Olsen’s wingedskate
  • disc center no thorns
    top uniform color
    distance between Ds < base D1
    top disc uniform; pale below
    pores under snout black
    tail: side thorns compressed, hooked
    tail thorns: 3 rows, center - 31-48 + 1 between Ds
    Dipturus oregoni, Hooktail skate, Oregon's wingedskate
  • disc center no thorns
    Ds & C black
    top uniform; bottom cream/dusky
    pores under snout dark
    tail 1 row thorns
    Dipturus teevani, Prickly brown ray, Caribbean skate