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  • head & body: red-brown spots
    black saddles: back 3 (juv 2), tail base 1
    C rounded
  • body deep, compressed
    head concave
    snout pointed
    back humped
    Epinephelus altivelis, Humpback grouper
    white + round black spots
  • head & body: red-brown spots
    soft D, C & A - broad dark margin
    C rounded
    A 8
  • head & body thick
    eye small
    grey + pale blotches, + small dark spots
    D spines shorter than rays
    C: rounded
    Epinephelus itajara, Goliath grouper, Itajara grouper, Itajara Epinephelus quinquefasciatus grouper
  • red-brown + irregular pale blotches & spots
    D, C & A: outer edge dark + white border
    D: high peak at spines II-III
    C: straight/slightly concave
    Epinephelus morio, Red grouper
    inside mouth red
  • brown+ dense pale spots & scattered large blotches.
    juv: body & fins black + white spots
    Epinephelus ongus, White-streaked grouper
  • tan + irregular dark bars
    nape & eyes: dark Y
    tail base: black saddle
    C convex
    Epinephelus striatus, Nassau grouper