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Xestospongia proxima(Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864)Xestospongia proxima

PhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies
PoriferaDemospongiaeHaploscleridaHaliclonidaeXestospongiaproxima
Habitat
Common on reef environments, coral rubble, seagrass beds.
Distribution
Colombia, Brasil, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Bocas del Toro (Panamá).
Characteristics
Shape: lobate, lobes can be irregularly shaped. Lobes typically 3-5cm tall. Spreading mass of lobes on coral rubble substrate.

Color: external brown/maroon, internal light tan

Consistency: Very firm, crumbles when crushed.

Surface: rugose surface, texture like fine sandpaper

Apertures: oscules 2-5mm in diameter, located at tips of lobes. 1 oscule per lobe.

Skeleton: spicules consisting of strongyles only. isotrophic to confused spicule tracts.

Others: no odor or exudate

In Bocas Del Toro
Reported ByGuzman and Guevara (1999); Diaz (2005)
Sampling methodsDive Coral Transect
LocalityIslas Colon, Carenero, Batimentos, Solarte/Isla Pastores, Cristobal, Popa, Cayo Agua
Specimens collected growing on coral rubble beneath mangrove roots at 1m depth at STRI point.
ObservationsHighly variable in shape.
Numerous larvae observed within brood chambers in August.
CommentsThis species is associates with symbiotic cyanobacteria. Larvae are positively phototrophic.

Synonyms:
Densa araminta de Laubenfels, 1934
Thalysias proxima Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864
Compiled by
Andrew Mobley
Images
Xestospongia proxima
Xestospongia proxima
Xestospongia proxima
Xestospongia proxima
Map
coordinates
Links
Reference
Collin, R. et al. 2005. Photographic Identification Guide to some Common Marine Invertebrates of Bocas Del Toro, Panama. Caribbean Journal of Science. 41(3): 638-707;

Diaz, M.C. 2005. Common sponges from shallow marine habitats from Bocas del Toro region, Panama. Caribbean Journal of Science 41: 465-475.

Guzman, H.M. & C. Guevara. 1999. Arrecifes coralinos de Bocas del Toro, Panamá: III. Distribución, estructura, diversidad y estado de conservación de los arrecifes de las islas Pastores, Cristóbal, Popa y Cayo Agua. Rev. Biol. Trop., 47(4): 659-676;

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