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Styela plicataLesueur, 1823

Natural History Notes
Their body contains organic extracts possibly to deter predation.

Alcohol extract from the body of Styela plicata exhibits anti-Hepatitis-B properties.

Could be considered as an indicators of areas that have been subject to intense stress (substrate transformation, water stagnation and excess sedimentation) over long periods of time.

Introduced into Port Phillip Bay, Australia (Cohen, 2000).

Other Literature
Wang-Rui, Wan-Xin-Xiang (2005). The comparison of the inhibitory effect of ethanol extract from different species of ascidean on HBsAg and HBeAg in vitro. Zhongguo Yaolixue Tongbao 21(5): 606-608.

Cohen, B. F., Currie, D. R., McArthur, M. A. (2000). Epibenthic community structure in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 51(7): 689-702.

Naranjo, S. A., Carballo, J. L., Garcia Gomez, J. C. (1996) Effects of environmental stress on ascidian populations in Algeciras Bay (southern Spain). Possible marine bioindicators? Marine Ecology Progress Series. 144(1-3): 119-131.

Pineda, M.C., S. Lopez-Legentil and X. Turon. 2011. The Whereabouts of an Ancient Wanderer: Global Phylogeography of the Solitary Ascidian Styela plicata. PlosOne

In Bocas Del Toro
Reported ByRocha, R. M., Faria, S. B., and Moreno, T. R.; Marine Invertebrate Taxonomy Workshop I, Bocas del Toro, August 2003
LocalityIn coral reef habitat.

Pisut, D. P., Pawlik, J. R. (2002) Anti-predatory chemical defenses of ascidians: Secondary metabolites or inorganic acids? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 270(2), 203-214.

Rocha R.M., et al. Ascidians from Bocas del Toro, Panama. I. Biodiversity. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.41, No. 3, 600-612, 2005.
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