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Didemnum psammatode(Sluiter, 1895)

In mangrove, coral and artificial substrates.

Caribbean Sea, Atlantic ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Indo-Pacific.

Natural History Notes
Crude extracts of Didemnum psammatode contain compounds that inhibit bacterial growth. The presence of bacteria on the animal's surface could be due to a selective inhibition against specific bacteria or the ascidians may exhibit surface properties that support specific epibacteria which may reduce the abundance of other bacteria.
The extracts of D. psammatode also show a strong inhibition for the sea urchin egg cell cycle during both phases examined, first cleavage and blastula.

0.5 m
Colony crowded of fecal pellets in the surface of the tunic. There are few spicules in the tunic.

Other Literature
Ramasamy,M. S.,Murugan, A. (2003) Chemical defense in ascidians Eudistoma viride and Didemnum psammathodes in Tuticorin, southeast coast of India: Bacterial epibiosis and fouling deterrent activity. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences. 32(4): 337-339.

Jimenez, P. C., Fortier, S. C., Lotufo, T. M-C., Pessoa, C., Moraes, M. E. A., de-Moraes, M. O., Costa-Lotufo, L. V. (2003). Biological activity in extracts of ascidians (Tunicata, Ascidiacea) from the northeastern Brazilian coast. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 287(1): 93-101.

Kott, P. (2001) The australian Ascidiacea Part 4, Aplousobranchia (3), Didemnidae Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 47(1): 1-407.

In Bocas Del Toro
Reported ByRocha, R. M., Faria, S. B., and Moreno, T. R.; Marine Invertebrate Taxonomy Workshop I, Bocas del Toro, August 2003.

2006 Smithsonian Tunicate Taxonomy Course sponsored by SENACYT

LocalityPopa I.

Collin, R., Diaz, M. C., Norenburg, J., Rocha, R. M., Sanchez, J. A., Schulze, A., Schartz, M. and Valdes, A. (2005) Photographic Identification guide to some Common Marine Invertebrates of Bocas Del Toro, Panama. Caribbean Journal of Science 41(3), 638 - 707.

Rocha R.M., et al. Ascidians from Bocas del Toro, Panama. I. Biodiversity. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.41, No. 3, 600-612, 2005.

Field Guide to Common Sea-Squirts (Tunicata, Chordata) of Bocas del Toro area elaborated by students of the NSF-PASI: Advanced Tunicate Biology course, 2011.
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