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Phallusia nigraSavigny, 1816Phallusia nigra

Ascidia nigra (Savigny, 1816)
Ascidia atra Lesueur, 1823
Ascidia somalensis Sluiter, 1905
Found on mangrove roots and coral skeletons in Bocas del Toro. Elsewhere in warm seas, is very common in all habitats.

West and East Atlantic, East North Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea, Djibouti, Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Japan.

Natural History Notes
Usually surrounded by ophiurans.

0.5 m
Individuals are around 7.0 cm long with apical siphons. The tunic is black, thick and smooth without epibionts. The siphons are close to each other, the atrial slightly lateral. Both pharynx and body wall are very dark or black and many accumulation vesicles surround the gut.
In very transparent fresh animals, it is possible to see the assessory apertures along the neural gland duct as orange spots.

Other Literature
Van Name, W.G. (1945) The North and South American ascidians. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 84, 1–476.
In Bocas Del Toro
Reported ByRocha, Rosana (2003).

2006 Smithsonian Tunicate Taxonomy Course sponsored by SENACYT

2009 Smithsonian Taxonomy and Biology of Tunicates Course

NSF-PASI: Advanced Tunicate Biology course, 2011

LocalitySTRI dock, Solarte.

Phallusia nigra
Phallusia nigra
Collin, R. et al. 2005. Photographic Identification Guide to some Common Marine Invertebrates of Bocas Del Toro, Panama. Caribbean Journal of Science. 41(3): 638-707.

Marine Invertebrate Taxonomy Workshop, Bocas del Toro, August 2003

BONNET, N. Y. K., ROCHA, R. M. 2011. The family Ascidiidae Herdman (Tunicata: Ascidiacea) in Bocas del Toro, Panama. Description of six new species. Zootaxa v.2864, 1-33

Rocha R.M., et al. Ascidians from Bocas del Toro, Panama. I. Biodiversity. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol.41, No. 3, 600-612, 2005.

Field Guide to Common Sea-Squirts (Tunicata, Chordata) of Bocas del Toro area elaborated by students of the NSF-PASI: Advanced Tunicate Biology course, 2011
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