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Taxonomic References

Taxonomies for most groups are evolving rapidly with the publication of DNA barcodes and molecular phylogenies and in many cases there are several competing taxonomic schemes available. We tried to stay up-dated but old names inevitably creep into any database.   For less well-studied groups we follow the taxonomy given to us by the experts who are cited as having reported the species in Bocas. For larger groups with numerous workers we follow the standardized taxonomy from the following groups:


The vascular plant taxonomic list follows Correa, Mireya, D., et al. 2004, Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá (with later, unpublished additions and corrections; revised 2-3 times per year).


The amphibian and reptile taxonomic list follows the list maintained by the Círculo Herpetológico de Panamá (unpublished).


The birds of Panama taxonomic list follows the Audubon Society of Panama's official bird list (unpublished).

The sponge taxonomy and synonymies follow the World Porifera Database:
The bryozoan taxonomy and synonymies follow

Names for other groups follow the taxonomy indicated by the contributing experts.