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Strabomantis bufoniformis Boulenger 1896

Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)
Strabomantis bufoniformis
Strabomantis bufoniformis

Common name

Rusty Robber Frog



Species description based on Savage (2002). A large frog with a large head (males to 59 mm, females to 94 mm).

Strabomantis bufoniformis Adult 1 Strabomantis bufoniformis Adult 2 Strabomantis bufoniformis Adult 3 Strabomantis bufoniformis Adult 4


The dorsal surface is brown, with darker brown blotches. The upper surface of the thighs are barred. The dorsal surface is covered in prominent tubercles.

Strabomantis bufoniformis Dorsal 1


The ventral surface is white.

Strabomantis bufoniformis Ventral 1 Strabomantis bufoniformis Ventral 2

Concealed surfaces

The rear surfaces of the thighs are brown, with some small light spots.

Strabomantis bufoniformis Concealed surfaces 1 Strabomantis bufoniformis Concealed surfaces 2 Strabomantis bufoniformis Concealed surfaces 3


The eyes are large.

Strabomantis bufoniformis Eye 1 Strabomantis bufoniformis Eye 2

Ecology behavior and evolution


Strabomantis bufoniformis is known to consume insects (Savage 2002).


A series of low barks followed by shorter knocks (Ibanez et al 1999)

Taxonomy and systematics



Boulenger 1896


Craugastor bufoniformis, Eleutherodactylus bufoniformis, Hylodes bufoniformis, Lymnophys bufoniformis

Type locality

Buenaventura (Colombia)

Habitat and distribution


Lowland forest.


Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama


Strabomantis bufoniformis distribution
Distrubution map (IUCN)


Boulenger, GA. 1896. Descriptions of new reptiles and batrachians from Colombia. Annals and Magazine of Natural History Series 6, 17: 16-21.

Cei, JM, V Erspamer, and M Roseghini. 1967. Taxonomic and evolutionary significance of biogenic amines and polypeptides occurring in amphibian skin. I. Neotropical Leptodactylid frogs. Systematic Biology 16 (4): 328-342.

Cochran, DM and CJ Goin. 1970. Frogs of Colombia. United States National Museum Bulletin, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Crawford, AJ and EN Smith. 2005. Cenozoic biogeography and evolution in direct-developing frogs of Central America (Leptodactylidae: Eleutherodactylus) as inferred from a phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 35: 536-555.

Dunn, ER. 1931. The amphibians of Barro Colorado Island. Occasional Papers of the Boston Society of Natural History 5: 403-421.

Frost, D, T Grant, J Faivovich, R Bain, A Haas, C Haddad, R de Sá, A Channing, M Wilkinson, S Donnellan, C Raxworthy, J Campbell, B Blotto, P Moler, R Drewes, R Nussbaum, J Lynch, D Green, and W Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 1-370

Hedges, SB, WE Duellman and MP Heinicke. 2008. New World direct-developing frogs (Anura: Terrarana): molecular phylogeny, classification, biogeography, and conservation. Zootaxa 1737: 1-182.

Ibañez, R, AS Rand, and CA Jaramillo. 1999. Los anfibios del Monumento Natural Barro Colorado, Parque Nacional Soberanía y areas adyacentes. Mizrachi, E. and Pujol, S.A., Santa Fe de Bogota.

Ibáñez, R, F Solís, C Jaramillo, and AS Rand. 2000. An overwiew of the herpetology of Panama. In: Johnson, JD, RG Webb, and OA Flores-Villela. Eds. Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation. The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.

Lynch, JD and SB Arroyo. 2009. Risks to Colombian amphibian fauna from cultivation of coca (Erythroxylum coca): a geographical analysis. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 72(15-16): 974-985.

Lynch, JD. 1975. A review of the broad-headed eleutherodactyline frogs of South America (Leptodactylidae). Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 38: 1-46.

Lynch, JD. 2000. Una aproximación a las culebras ciegas de Colombia (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 23: 317-337.

Ruiz-Carranza, PM, MC Ardila-Robayo, and JD Lynch. 1996. Lista actualizada de la fauna de Amphibia de Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales: 365-415.

Savage, JM. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Toft, CA. 1980. Seasonal variation in populations of Panamanian litter frogs and their prey: a comparison of wetter and drier sites. Oecologia 47(1): 34-38.

Toft, CA. 1981. Feeding ecology of Panamanian litter anurans: patterns in diet and foraging mode. Herpetologica 15(2): 139-44.

Whiles, MR, KR Lips, CM Pringle, SS Kilham, RJ Bixby, R Brenes, S Connelly, JC Colon-Gaud, M Hunte-Brown, AD Huryn, C Montgomery, and S Peterson. 2006. The effects of amphibian population declines on the structure and function of Neotropical stream ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4(1): 27-34.

Additional resources

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Vocalization of Strabomantis bufoniformis