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Craugastor fitzingeri Schmidt 1857

Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)
Craugastor fitzingeri
Adult Craugastor fitzingeri
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Common name

Fitzinger's Robber Frog

Identification

Adult

Species description based on Savage (2002). Medium-sized frog. Males to 35 mm, females to 53 mm.

Craugastor fitzingeri Adult 1 Craugastor fitzingeri Adult 2 Craugastor fitzingeri Adult 3 Craugastor fitzingeri Adult 4

Dorsal

The color of the dorsal surface ranges from gray-brown to brown to orange-brown. A lighter middorsal stripe is sometimes present. The dorsal surface is quite warty, with some ridging.

Craugastor fitzingeri Dorsal 1 Craugastor fitzingeri Dorsal 2 Craugastor fitzingeri Dorsal 3

Ventral

The belly is pale white or yellow, while the throat is almost always grey with a white line down the center. The ventral surface is smooth.

Craugastor fitzingeri Ventral 1 Craugastor fitzingeri Ventral 2 Craugastor fitzingeri Ventral 3

Concealed surfaces

The rear surface of the thigh has many light yellow spots on a dark brown to black background. The upper surface of the thigh usually has some dark bars. The undersides of the thighs are usually yellowish or greenish.

Craugastor fitzingeri Concealed surfaces 1 Craugastor fitzingeri Concealed surfaces 2

Eye

Iris grayish or bronzish (one, the other, or both), with a brown or red stripe dividing the upper and lower halves.

Craugastor fitzingeri Eye 1

Extremities

Feet are moderately webbed.

Craugastor fitzingeri Extremeties 1

Life history

Egg

Dunn (1931) reported a clutch of 44 eggs attended by a male found in leaf litter. Later studies suggested it was probably a female because of its large size (Lynch and Myers 1983).

Ecology behavior and evolution

Diet

Craugastor fitzingeri eats a variety of invertebrate prey items (Lieberman 1986). Shifts in prey preferences occur as individuals age (Whitfield and Donnelly 2006).

Ecology

Individuals may be found on low vegetation and debris in the forest, and near forest edges (Savage 2002). Snakes such as Liophis epinephalus consume Craugastor fitzingeri (Sexton and Heatewole 1965).

Call

A series of harsh clacks (Savage 2002) that sounds rather like a cackle. Males generally call after heavy rains and around dusk, but do not call late into the night (Savage 2002). The vocal sac is internal (Savage 2002).

Behavior and communication

Craugastor fitzingeri does not aggregate or coordinate with other individuals when calling (Duellman 1976). However, calling is thought to aid males in spacing themselves territorially (Savage 2002).

Karyotype

2N = 2 (DeWeese 1976)

Taxonomy and systematics

Taxonomy

Authority

Schmidt 1857

Synonyms

Craugastor pulchrigulus, Eleutherodactylus fitzingeri, Eleutherodactylus griseus, Eleutherodactylus nubilus, Hyla grisea, Hylodes fitzingeri, Hylodes griseus, Hylodes nubilus, Hylodes pulchrigulus, Leiyla Guntheri, Lithodytes guentheri, Liohyla guentheri

Type locality

Holotype: Cordilleren von Neu-Granada in einer Höhe von gegen 4000′ (Panama) Neotype: Panamá: Canal Zone: Barro Colorado Island, near the laboratory

Habitat and distribution

Habitat

Lowland and lower montane forest to 1520 m.

Countries

countries
Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama

Map

Craugastor fitzingeri distribution
Distrubution map (IUCN)

Bibliography

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Choi, IH, JH Shim, YS Lee, and RE Ricklefs. 2000. Scaling of jumping performance in anuran amphibians. Journal of Herpetology 34(2): 222-227.

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DeWeese, JE. 1976. The karyotypes of Middle American frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Leptodactylidae): A case study of the significance of the karyologic method. PhD dissertation. University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Duellman, WE. 1967. Social organization in the mating calls of some neotropical anurans. American Midland Naturalist 77(1): 156-163.

Dunn, ER. 1931. The amphibians of Barro Colorado Island. Occasional Papers of the Boston Society of Natural History 5: 403-421.

Furlani, D, G Francesco-Ficetola, G Colombo, M Ugurlucan, and F De Bernardi. 2009. Deforestation and the structure of frog communities in the Humedale Terraba-Sierpe, Costa Rica. Zoological Science 26 (3): 197-202.

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Guyer, C and MA Donnelly. 2005. Amphibians and Reptiles of La Selva, Costa Rica and the Caribbean Slope: A Comprehensive Guide. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Heatwole, HF and OJ Sexton. 1966. Herpetofaunal comparisons between two climatic zones in Panama. American Midland Naturalist 75: 45-60.

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Savage, JM. 1974. On the leptodactylid frog called Eleutherodactylus palmatus (Boulenger) and that status of Hylodes fitzingeri O. Schmidt. Herpetologica 30: 289-299.

Savage, JM. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

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Whitfield, SM and MA Donnelly. 2006. Ontogenetic and seasonal variation in the diets of a Costa Rican leaf-litter herpetofauna. Variación ontogénica y estacional en las dietas de la herpetofauna del mantillo costarricense. Journal of Tropical Ecology 22(4): 409-417.

Additional resources

Audio Files

Vocalization of Craugastor fitzingeri
[Metadata]

Images