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Cochranella euknemos Savage and Starrett 1967

Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)
Cochranella euknemos
Adult Cochranella euknemos
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Common name

San Jose Cochran Frog

Identification

Adult

Species description based on Savage and Starrett (1967), Ibanez et al 1999), and Savage (2002). Small frog; males to 25 mm, females to 32 mm.

Cochranella euknemos Adult 1

Dorsal

Dorsal surface blue-green and a little granular. Many small whitish or yellowish spots present.

Cochranella euknemos Dorsal 1

Ventral

Ventral surface transparent white, but with more yellow on the undersides of the arms and legs. The digestive tract, liver and kidneys visible. The heart is not visible.

Distinguishing characteristics

Lower arms and legs have a distinct white fleshy fringe. Cochranella euknemos also has a white lip line.

Eye

Iris grayish ivory.

Extremities

Feet moderately webbed.

Life history

Breeding season

In Costa Rica, males call from May to November (Hayes 1991).

Egg

Eggs are black and white (Savage and Starrett 1967, Savage 2002). Gelatinous egg masses are laid on the tips of leaves overhanging streams in such a way that the leaf funnels water and keeps the mass hydrated (Hayes 1991).

Tadpole

The tadpole of Cochranella euknemos is undescribed but Lips and Savage (1996) suggest some characteristics that it is likely to have based on the features of other Centrolenid tadpoles. In particular, they are likely to have 3 lower teethrows and 1 full and 1 partial (limited to a short segment on either side) upper toothrow (Lips and Savage 1996). Centrolenid tadpoles are fossorial, living in the low-oxygen environment under mud and leaf litter in stream bottoms (McDiarmid and Altig 1999).

Ecology behavior and evolution

Ecology

Populations of Cochranella euknemos are beginning to decline east of the Panama Canal due to the invasion of chytrid fungus (Woodhams et al 2008).

Call

A fast, blurry creep creep creep (Savage 2002).

Karyotype

2N =

Taxonomy and systematics

Taxonomy

Authority

Savage and Starrett 1967

Synonyms

Centrolenella euknemos

Etymology

Greek euknemos = with beautiful legs

Type locality

Costa Rica: Provincia de San José: Canton de Coronado: 1.5 km S Alto La Palma, 1500 m.

Notes

Hayes, Pounds and Timmerman (1989) and Pounds and Fogden (2000) made observations of frogs that they called Cochranella euknemos, but upon further evaluation appears to be a distinct species (Savage 2002).

Habitat and distribution

Habitat

Lowland and premontane forest to 1650 m.

Countries

countries
Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama

Map

Cochranella euknemos distribution
Distrubution map (IUCN)

Bibliography

Hayes, MP and PH Starrett. 1980. Notes on a collection of centrolenid frogs from the Colombian Chocó. Bulletin Southern California Academy of Sciences 79: 89-96.

Hayes, MP, JA Pounds, and WW Timmerman. 1989. An annotated list and guide to the amphibians and reptiles of Monteverde, Costa Rica. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circulation 17: 1-67.

Hayes, MP. 1985. Centrolenella euknemos (cascade glass frog). Herpetological Review 16(2): 59.

Hayes, MP. 1991. A study of clutch attendance in the neotropical frog Centrolenella fleischmanni (Anura: Centrolenidae). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Miami.

Ibañez, R, AS Rand, and CA Jaramillo. 1999. Los anfibios del Monumento Natural Barro Colorado, Parque Nacional Soberanía y areas adyacentes. Mizrachi, E. and Pujol, S.A., Santa Fe de Bogota.

Ibáñez, R, F Solís, C Jaramillo, and AS Rand. 2000. An overwiew of the herpetology of Panama. In: Johnson, JD, RG Webb, and OA Flores-Villela. Eds. Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation, pp. 159-170. The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.

James TY, AP Litvintseva, R Vilgalys, JAT Morgan, JW Taylor, MC Fisher, L Berger, C Weldon, L du Preez, and JE Longcore. 2009. Rapid global expansion of the fungal disease chytridiomycosis into declining and healthy amphibian populations. PLoS Pathogens 5(5): e1000458.

Jaramillo, FE and CA Jaramillo. 1984. Algunos aspectos sobre la sistematica, conducta, ecologia, y distribucion de las ranas de cristal, genero Centrolenella (Amphibia, Anura, Centrolenidae), de Panama. Licenciatura en Biologia tesis. Universidad de Panama.

Jungfer, KH. 1988. Froschlurche von Fortuna, Panama II. Hylidae (2), Centrolenidae, Dendrobatidae. Herpetofauna 10: 6-12.

Kubicki, B. 2007. Ranas de vidrio Costa Rica = Glass frogs of Costa Rica. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, INBio.

Pounds, JA and MPL Fogden. 2000. Appendix 8: Amphibians and Reptiles of Monteverde. In Monteverde: Ecology and Conservation of a Tropical Cloud Forest. Nadkarni, NM and NT Wheelwright. Eds. Oxford University Press, New York.

Ruiz-Carranza, PM and JD Lynch. 1991. Ranas Centrolenidae de Colombia I. Propuesta de una nueva clasificacion generica. Lozania. Bogota 57: 1-30.

Ruiz-Carranza, PM and JD Lynch. 1991. Ranas Centrolenidae de Colombia III. nuevas especies de Cochranella del grupo granulosa. Lozania. Bogota 59: 1-18.

Ruiz-Carranza, PM, MC Ardila-Robayo, and JD Lynch. 1996. Lista actualizada de la fauna de Amphibia de Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 20: 365-415.

Savage, JM and PH Starrett. 1967. A new fringe-limbed tree-frog (family Centrolenidae) from lower Central America. Copeia 1967: 604-606.

Savage, JM. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Starrett, PH and JM Savage. 1973. The systematic status and distribution of Costa Rica glass frogs, Genus Centrolenella (Family Centrolenidae), with description of a new species. Bulletin of the Southern California 72(2): 57-78.

Woodhams, DC, VL Kilburn , LK Reinert, J Voyles , D Medina, RIbáñez, AD Hyatt, DG Boyle, JD Pask, DM Green, and LA Rollins-Smith. 2008. Chytridiomycosis and amphibian population declines continue to spread eastward in Panama. EcoHealth 5(3): 268-274.

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