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Silverstoneia nubicola Dunn 1924

Near Threatened (IUCN 3.1)
Silverstoneia nubicola
Silverstoneia nubicola (Boquete rocket frog)
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Common name

Boquete Rocket Frog

Identification

Adult

Species description based on Savage (2002). A tiny rocket frog (male to 20 mm, females to 23 mm). Males have a swollen middle finger.

Silverstoneia nubicola Adult 1

Dorsal

The dorsal surface is dark brown; the coloration becomes black along the sides. The brown and black portions are separated by a thin cream-colored line that extends from the groin forward to the eye. A second light line extending from the upper lip to the groin borders the black sides below; this line is more evident in males because the throat and chest are black. The upper surface of the thigh is mottled brown.

Silverstoneia nubicola Dorsal 1

Ventral

The ventral surface is pale yellow, except in males.

Silverstoneia nubicola Ventral 1

Concealed surfaces

Some red-orange coloration is apparent where mottling is not extensive.

Silverstoneia nubicola Concealed surfaces 1 Silverstoneia nubicola Concealed surfaces 2 Silverstoneia nubicola Concealed surfaces 3

Life history

Breeding season

Breeding takes place year-round (Savage 2002). Males call during the early morning and late afternoon from territories on the forest floor (Savage 2002).

Tadpole

The body of the tadpole is oval-shaped, with a long tai, and very low tail fins (Savage 2002). Tadpoles are brown above, pale below (Savage 2002). Some darker pigmentation is generally present (Savage 2002).

Ecology behavior and evolution

Ecology

Silverstoneia nubicola is a diurnal inhabitant of leaf litter (Savage 2002).

Call

A rapid series of "peets" (Ibanez and Smith 1995)

Behavior and communication

Females deposit their eggs in leaf litter in the territories of males (Savage 2002). Males carry hatchlings to streams to continue development (Savage 2002).

Taxonomy and systematics

Taxonomy

Authority

Dunn 1924

Synonyms

Colostethus nubicola, Phyllobates nubicola

Type locality

rain forest above Boquete on the trail to Chiriquí Grande, 4500 feet [1372 m] (Panama)

Habitat and distribution

Habitat

Lowland and premontane forest to 860 m.

Countries

countries
Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama

Map

Silverstoneia nubicola distribution
Distrubution map (IUCN)

Bibliography

Crawford, AJ, KR Lips, and E Birmingham. 2010. Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history in the highlands of central Panama. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107(31):13777-13782.

Dunn, ER. 1924. Some Panamanian frogs. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 151: 1-16.

Dunn, ER. 1933. Amphibians and reptiles from El Valle de Anton, Panama. Occasional Papers of the Boston Society of Natural History 8: 65-79.

Gerhardt, HC and J Rheinlaender. 1980. Accuracy of sound localization in a miniature dendrobatid frog. Naturwissenschaften 67(7): 362-363.

Grant, T, DR Frost, JP Caldwell, R Gagliardo, CFB Haddad, PJR Kok, DB Means, BP Noonan, WE Schargel, and WC Wheeler. 2006. Phylogenetic systematics of dart-poison frogs and their relatives (Amphibia: Athesphatanura: Dendrobatidae). Sistemática filogenética de las ranas venenosas y sus afines (Amphibia: Athesphatanura: Dendrobatidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 299: 1-262.

Haas, A. 1995. Cranial features of dendrobatid larvae (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae). Journal of Morphology 224(3): 241-264.

Ibáñez, R and EM Smith. 1995. Systematic status of Colostethus flotator and C. nubicola (Anura: Dendrobatidae) in Panama. Copeia 1995: 446-456.

Ibáñez, R, F Solís, C Jaramillo, and AS Rand. 2000. An overwiew of the herpetology of Panama. In: Johnson, JD, RG Webb, and OA Flores-Villela. Eds. Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation. The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.

Jaeger, RG, JP Hailman and LS Jaeger. 1976. Bimodal diel activity of a Panamanian Dendrobatid Frog, Colostethus nubicola, in relation to light. Herpetologica 32(1): 77-81.

Jaslow, AP. 1982. Factors affecting the distribution and abundance of tadpoles in a lowland tropical stream. PhD dissertation. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Lips, K and JM Savage. 1996. Key to the Known Tadpoles (Amphibia: Anura) of Costa Rica. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 31(1): 17-26

Lips, KR, F Brem, R Brenes, JD Reeve, RA Alford, J Voyles, C Carey, L Livo, AP Pessier, and JP Collins. 2006. Emerging infectious disease and the loss of biodiversity in a Neotropical amphibian community. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103(9): 3165-3170.

Lynch, JD and SB Arroyo. 2009. Risks to Colombian amphibian fauna from cultivation of coca (Erythroxylum coca): a geographical analysis. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 72(15-16): 974-985.

Pough, FH and TL Taigen. 1990. Metabolic correlates of the foraging and social behaviour of dart-poison frogs. Animal Behaviour 39(1): 145-155.

Ruiz-Carranza, PM, MC Ardila-Robayo, and JD Lynch. 1996. Lista actualizada de la fauna de Amphibia de Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales: 365-415.

Ryan, MJ, MD Tuttle, and RMR Barclay. 1983. Behavioral responses of the frog-eating bat,Trachops cirrhosus, to sonic frequencies. Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology 150(4): 413-418.

Savage, JM. 1968. The dendrobatid frogs of Central America. Copeia 1968: 745-776.

Savage, JM. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Scott, NJ, Jr. 1976. The abundance and diversity of the herpetofaunas of tropical forest litter. Biotropica 8(1): 41-58.

Summers, K. 2000. Mating and aggressive behaviour in dendrobatid frogs from Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica: a comparative study. Behaviour 137(1): 7-24.

Taigen, TL and FH Pough. 1983. Prey preference, foraging behavior, and metabolic characteristics of frogs. The American Naturalist 122(4): 509-520.

Taigen, TL and FH Pough. 1985. Metabolic correlates of anuran behavior. American Zoologist 25(4): 987-997.

Toft, CA, AS Rand and M Clarke. 1982. Population dynamics and seasonal recruitmentin Bufo typhonius and Colostethus nubicola (Anura) on Barro Colorado Island. In: Leigh, EG. Ed. Seasonal rhythms and the ecology of a tropical forest: Barro Colorado Island. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Toft, CA. 1980. Seasonal variation in populations of Panamanian litter frogs and their prey: a comparison of wetter and drier sites. Oecologia 47(1): 34-38.

Traniello, JFA. 1980. Colony specificity in the trail pheromone of an ant. Naturwissenschaften 67(7): 361-362.

Wassersug, RJ. 1971. On the comparative palatability of some dry-season tadpoles from Costa Rica. American Midland Naturalist 86(1): 101-109.

Woodhams, DC, VL Kilburn , LK Reinert, J Voyles , D Medina, RIbáñez, AD Hyatt, DG Boyle, JD Pask, DM Green, and LA Rollins-Smith. 2008. Chytridiomycosis and amphibian population declines continue to spread eastward in Panama. EcoHealth 5(3): 268-274.

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