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Silverstoneia flotator Dunn 1931

Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)
Silverstoneia flotator
Silverstoneia flotator (Rainforest rocket frog)
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Common name

Rainforest Rocket Frog

Identification

Adult

Species description based on Savage (2002). A tiny rocket frog (males to 17 mm, females to 18 mm). Mature males have a swollen middle finger. Throat color in males pale grey throat (white in females).

Silverstoneia flotator Adult 1 Silverstoneia flotator Adult 2

Dorsal

The dorsal surface is dark brown; the coloration darkens to black along the sides. The dorsal and lateral coloration is separated by a complete or partial thin light stripe. The stripe extends from the groin to either midway across the side, or all the way to the eye. The upper surfaces of the arms and legs are usually orangeish. There are no bars on the arms or legs.

Silverstoneia flotator Dorsal 1 Silverstoneia flotator Dorsal 2

Ventral

The ventral surface is white.

Silverstoneia flotator Ventral 1

Concealed surfaces

The rear surface of the thigh is orangish, borded above by a dark line.

Silverstoneia flotator Concealed surfaces 1

Life history

Breeding season

Males call from leaf litter during the early and later parts of the day (Savage 2002).

Tadpole

The tadpole body is oval-shaped, with a fairly long tail and low tail fins (Savage 2002). The body and tail are dark brown, with some darker pigmentation on the tail (Savage 2002). The ventral surface is pale (Savage 2002). Tadpoles can orient their large mouths dorsally to feed on particles trapped in the surface film of water (Savage 2002).

Ecology behavior and evolution

Diet

This species consumes a variety of small arthropods, including large numbers of insect larvae (Toft 1981).

Ecology

Silverstoneia flotator lives in leaf litter (Savage 2002).

Call

A series of "peets", usually three repeated in a row (Ibanez and Smith 1995, Savage 2002)

Behavior and communication

Males are territorial and will wrestle with other males to defend their territories (Savage 2002). Eggs are laid in leaf litter in a male's territory (Savage 2002). When the eggs hatch, the male transports the tadpoles to nearby streams to continue development (Savage 2002).

Taxonomy and systematics

Taxonomy

Authority

Dunn 1931

Synonyms

Colostethus flotator, Phyllobates flotator, Phyllobates nubicola flotator

Type locality

Barro Colorado Island, Panama Canal Zone

Notes

This form likely represents a complex of a number of species.

Habitat and distribution

Habitat

Lowland forest to 865 m.

Countries

countries
Costa Rica, Panama

Map

Silverstoneia flotator distribution
Distrubution map (IUCN)

Bibliography

Choi, I, JH Shim, YS Lee, and RE Ricklefs. 2000. Scaling of jumping performance in anuran amphibians. Journal of Herpetology 34(2): 222-227.

Dunn, ER. 1924. Some Panamanian frogs. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 151: 1-17.

Dunn, ER. 1931. New frogs from Panama and Costa Rica. Occasional Papers of the Boston Society of Natural History 5: 385-401.

Dunn, ER. 1933. Amphibians and reptiles from El Valle de Anton, Panama. Occasional Papers of the Boston Society of Natural History 8: 65-79.

Gagliardo, R, P Crump, E Griffith, J Mendelson, H Ross, and K Zippel. 2008. The principles of rapid response for amphibian conservation, using the programmes in Panama as an example. International Zoo Yearbook 42(1): 125-135.

Grant, T, DR Frost, JP Caldwell, R Gagliardo, CFB Haddad, PJR Kok, DB Means, BP Noonan, WE Schargel, and WC Wheeler. 2006. Phylogenetic systematics of dart-poison frogs and their relatives (Amphibia: Athesphatanura: Dendrobatidae). Sistemática filogenética de las ranas venenosas y sus afines (Amphibia: Athesphatanura: Dendrobatidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 299: 1-262.

Heyer, WR. 1976. Studies in larval amphibian habitat partitioning. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 242: 1-27.

Ibáñez, R and EM Smith. 1995. Systematic status of Colostethus flotator and C. nubicola (Anura: Dendrobatidae) in Panama. Copeia 1995: 446-456.

Ibañez, R, AS Rand, and CA Jaramillo. 1999. Los anfibios del Monumento Natural Barro Colorado, Parque Nacional Soberanía y areas adyacentes. Mizrachi, E. and Pujol, S.A., Santa Fe de Bogota.

Ibáñez, R, F Solís, C Jaramillo, and AS Rand. 2000. An overwiew of the herpetology of Panama. In: Johnson, JD, RG Webb, and OA Flores-Villela. Eds. Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation. The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.

Ibanez, R, R Condit, CG Angehr, S Aguilar, T Garcia, R Martinez, A Sanjur, R Stallard, SJ Wright, AS Rand, and S Heckadon. 2002. An ecosystem report on the Panama Canal: monitoring the status of the forest communities and the watershed. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 80(1): 65-95.

Jaeger, RG. 1976. A possible prey-call window in anuran auditory perception. Copeia 1976: 833-834.

Jaslow, AP. 1982. Factors affecting the distribution and abundance of tadpoles in a lowland tropical stream. PhD dissertation. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Lips, K and JM Savage. 1996. Key to the Known Tadpoles (Amphibia: Anura) of Costa Rica. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 31(1): 17-26

Maxson, LR and CW Myers. 1985. Albumin evolution in tropical poison frogs (Dendrobatidae): a preliminary report. Biotropica 17(1): 50-56.

McDiarmid, RW and JM Savage. 2005. The herpetofauna of the Rincon area, Peninsula de Osa, Costa Rica, a Central American lowland evergreen forest site. In: Ecology and Evolution in the Tropics: A Herpetological Perspective. Kluge, AG, MA Donnelly, BI Crother, C Guyer, and MH Wake. Eds. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Navas, CA. 1996a. The effect of temperature on the vocal activity of tropical anurans: a comparison of high and low-elevation species. Journal of Herpetology 30:488-497.

Navas, CA. 1996b. Metabolic physiology, locomotor performance, and thermal niche breadth in neotropical anurans. Physiological Zoology 69:1481-1501.

Pough, FH and TL Taigen. 1990. Metabolic correlates of the foraging and social behaviour of dart-poison frogs. Animal Behaviour 39(1): 145-155.

Poulin, B, G LeFebvre, R Ibanez, C Jaramillo, C Hernandez, and AS Rand. 2001. Avian predation upon lizards and frogs in a neotropical forest understorey. Journal of Tropical Ecology 17: 21-40.

Rand, AS and CW Meyers. 1990. The herpetofauna of Barro Colorado Island, Panama: an ecological summary. In: Gentry, AH. Ed. Four Neotropical Rainforests. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Savage, JM. 1968. The dendrobatid frogs of Central America. Copeia 1968(4): 745-776.

Savage, JM. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Simon, MP and CA Toft. 1991. Diet specialization in small vertebrates: mite-eating in frogs. OIKOS 61: 263-278.

Taigen, TL and FH Pough. 1983. Prey preference, foraging behavior, and metabolic characteristics of frogs. The American Naturalist 122(4): 509-520.

Toft, CA, AS Rand and M Clarke. 1982. Population dynamics and seasonal recruitmentin Bufo typhonius and Colostethus nubicola (Anura) on Barro Colorado Island. In: Leigh, EG. Ed. Seasonal rhythms and the ecology of a tropical forest: Barro Colorado Island. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Toft, CA. 1980. Seasonal variation in populations of Panamanian litter frogs and their prey: a comparison of wetter and drier sites. Oecologia 47(1): 34-38.

Toft, CA. 1981. Feeding ecology of Panamanian litter anurans: Patterns in diet and foraging mode. Herpetologica: 139-44.

Toft, CA. 1995. Evolution of diet specialization in poison-dart frogs (Dendrobatidae). Herpetologica 51: 201-216.

Verburg, P, SS Kilham, CM Pringle, KR Lips and DL Drake. 2007. A stable isotope study of a neotropical stream food web prior to the extirpation of its large amphibian community. Journal of Tropical Ecology 23(6): 643-651.

Whiles, MR, KR Lips, CM Pringle, SS Kilham, RJ Bixby, R Brenes, S Connelly, JC Colon-Gaud, M Hunte-Brown, AD Huryn, C Montgomery, and S Peterson. 2006. The effects of amphibian population declines on the structure and function of Neotropical stream ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4(1): 27-34.

Woodhams, DC, VL Kilburn , LK Reinert, J Voyles , D Medina, RIbáñez, AD Hyatt, DG Boyle, JD Pask, DM Green, and LA Rollins-Smith. 2008. Chytridiomycosis and amphibian population declines continue to spread eastward in Panama. EcoHealth 5(3): 268-274.

Additional resources

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Vocalization of Silverstoneia flotator
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