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Scinax elaeochrous Cope 1875

Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)
Scinax elaeochrous
Scinax elaeochrous frog
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Common name

Sipurio Snouted Treefrog

Identification

Adult

Species description based on Donnelly and Guyer (1994), Duellman (2001), and Savage (2002). A small treefrog with a protruding snout (males to 38 mm, females to 40 mm). Breeding males turn brilliant yellow, with bright yellow-orange vocal sacs.

Dorsal

The dorsum is yellowish, sometimes with green or light brown undertones. Some darker markings are usually present on the dorsum, and the arms and legs are also usually barred. The skin is generally smooth, or may appear a little bumpy.

Ventral

The ventral coloration varies from cream to yellow to orange. The throat region is usually yellow.

Concealed surfaces

The rear surfaces of the thighs are greenish-yellow.

Distinguishing characteristics

The bones of Scinax elaeochrous are dark green.

Eye

The eye is golden, with a coppery, bronzy or silvery cast.

Life history

Breeding season

Breeding occurs at ponds during the rainy season (Savage 2002). Large choruses form just after the first big rains (Duellman 1970, Donnelly and Guyer 1994).

Egg

Eggs are laid in masses near or attached to pond vegetation (Duellman 1970).

Tadpole

Tadpoles have compressed bodies with a moderately long tail and moderate tail fins (Savage 2002). The body is light yellowish brown with grey spots that extend onto the tail (Savage 2002). A diffuse brown stripe runs through the eye (Savage 2002). The ventral surface is pale (Savage 2002).

Ecology behavior and evolution

Call

A series of short "waaks" (Duellman 1970).

Karyotype

2N = 24 (Anderson 1991)

Taxonomy and systematics

Taxonomy

  • Kingdom:Animalia
    • Phylum:Chordata
      • Class:Amphibia

Authority

Cope 1875

Synonyms

Hyla dulcensis, Hyla elaeochrous, Hyla quinquevittata, Ololygon elaeochroa

Etymology

Greek elaeo = olive chroa = skin

Type locality

east foot of mountains near Sipurio (Costa Rica)

Habitat and distribution

Habitat

Lowland and premontane forest to 1200 m.

Countries

countries
Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama

Map

Scinax elaeochrous distribution
Distrubution map (IUCN)

Bibliography

Bell, KE and MA Donnelly. 2006. Influence of forest fragmentation on community structure of frogs and lizards in northeastern Costa Rica. Influencia de la fragmentación del bosque sobre la estructura comunitaria de ranas y lagartijas en el noreste de Costa Rica. Conservation Biology 20(6): 1750-1760.

Cope, ED. 1875. On the Batrachia and Reptilia of Costa Rica. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Series 2, 8: 93-154.

Cope, ED. 1886. Thirteenth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 23: 271-287.

Donnelly, MA and C Guyer. 1994. Patterns of reproduction and habitat use in an assemblage of Neotropical hylid frogs. Oecologia 98: 291-302.

Duellman, WE and JJ Wiens. 1992. The status of the hylid frog genus Ololygon and the recognition of Scinax Wagler, 1830. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 151: 1-23.

Duellman, WE and RA Pyles. 1983. Acoustic resource partitioning in anuran communities. Copeia 1983:639-649.

Duellman, WE. 1967. Courtship isolating mechanisms in Costa Rican hylid frogs. Herpetologica 23 (3): 169-183

Duellman, WE. 1967. Social organization in the mating calls of some neotropical anurans. American Midland Naturalist 77(1): 156-163.

Duellman, WE. 1970. The Hylid Frogs of Middle America. Volume 1. Monograph of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 1: 1- 753.

Duellman, WE. 2001. The Hylid Frogs of Middle America. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Faivovich, J, CFB Haddad, PCO Garcia, DR Frost, JA Campbell, and WC Wheeler. 2005. Systematic review of the frog family Hylidae, with special reference to Hylinae: Phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History: 1-240.

Fouquette, MJ, Jr. and AJ Delahoussaye. 1977. Sperm morphology in the Hyla rubra group (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae), and its bearing on generic status. Journal of Herpetology 11: 387-396.

Goldberg, SR and CR Bursey. 2008. Helminths from fifteen species of frogs (Anura, Hylidae) from Costa Rica. Phyllomedusa 7(1): 25-33

Heyer, WR. 1967. A herpetofaunal study of an ecological transect through the Cordillera de Tilarán, Costa Rica. Copeia 1967(2): 259-271

Ibáñez, R, F Solís, C Jaramillo, and AS Rand. 2000. An overwiew of the herpetology of Panama. In: Johnson, JD, RG Webb, and OA Flores-Villela. Eds. Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation. The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.

Köhler, G. 2001. Anfibios y Reptiles de Nicaragua. Herpeton, Offenbach, Germany.

Leon, JR. 1969. The systematics of the frogs of the Hyla rubra group in Central America. University of Kansas Publications in Natural History 18(6): 505-545.

Lips, K and JM Savage. 1996. Key to the Known Tadpoles (Amphibia: Anura) of Costa Rica. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 31(1): 17-26

Nieto, MJ. 1999. Estudio preliminar de las especies del Género Scinax (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae) en Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 23: 339-346.

Roberts, WE. 1993. Effects of anuran reproductive mode on recruitment of tadpoles into a temporary tropical pond. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 74(2): 413.

Robinson-Clark, DC. 1977. Herpetofauna bromelícola costarricense y renacuajos de Hyla picadoi Dunn. Historia Natural de Costa Rica. Biología de las Bromeliáceas 1: 31-44.

Ruiz-Carranza, PM, MC Ardila-Robayo, and JD Lynch. 1996. Lista actualizada de la fauna de Amphibia de Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales: 365-415.

Russell, MJ, M Ample, and A Strieby. 1999. Scinax elaeochroa (NCN). Predation. Herpetological Review 30(1): 38.

Salducci, M-D, C Marty, A Fouquet, and A Gilles. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships and biodiversity in Hylids (Anura: Hylidae) from French Guiana. Comptes rendus. Biologies 328(10-11): 1009-1024.

Savage, JM and WR Heyer. 1968. The tree-frogs (Family Hylidae) of Costa Rica: diagnosis and distribution. Revista de Biologia Tropical 16(1): 1-127.

Savage, JM. 1974. Type locality for species of amphibians and reptiles described from Costa Rica. Revista de Biologia Tropical. San Jose 22: 71-122.

Savage, JM. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Starrett, P. 1960. Descriptions of tadpoles of Middle American frogs. Miscellaneous Publications Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 110: 5-37.

Sunyer, J, G Paiz, DM Dehling, and G Kohler. 2009. A collection of amphibians from Río San Juan, southeastern Nicaragua. Herpetology Notes 2: 189-202.

Taylor, EH. 1958. Additions to the known herpetological fauna of Costa Rica with comments on other species. No. III. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 39: 3-40.

Whitfield, SM and MSF Pierce. 2005. Tree buttress microhabitat use by a neotropical leaf-litter herpetofauna. Microhábitat de las gambas de los árboles utilizado por la herpetofauna de la hojarasca. Journal of Herpetology 39(2): 192-198.

Wiens, JJ, CH Graham, DS Moen, SA Smith, and TW Reeder 2006. Evolutionary and Ecological Causes of the Latitudinal Diversity Gradient in Hylid Frogs: Treefrog Trees Unearth the Roots of High Tropical Diversity. American Naturalist 168: 579–596.

Wollerman, L and RH Wiley. 2002. Possibilities for error during communication by neotropical frogs in a complex acoustic environment. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 52:465-473.

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