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Pristimantis caryophyllaceus Barbour 1928

Near Threatened (IUCN 3.1)
Pristimantis caryophyllaceus
Adult Pristimantis caryophyllaceus
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Common name

La Loma Robber Frog

Identification

Adult

Species description based on Savage (2002). A small frog (males to 24 mm, females to 26 mm). This species has no clearly visible tympanum, either in males or females.

Pristimantis caryophyllaceus Adult 1 Pristimantis caryophyllaceus Adult 2

Dorsal

Dorsal coloration varies extensively in this species. Individuals may be yellow, pinkish, brownish, greyish, or dark green. All individuals have distinct darker spots on the dorsal surface; in some individuals the patterning extends into dark crossbars. No barring is present on the upper surfaces of the thighs.

Ventral

The ventral surface is white, but may be contain some dark pigmentation.

Pristimantis caryophyllaceus Ventral 1

Concealed surfaces

The coloration of the rear surfaces of the thigh and the groin are pale yellow and do not contrast with the coloration of the rest of the body.

Eye

Eye color varies from yellow to grey to bright red.

Extremities

The heels have well-developed pointy tubercles.

Life history

Egg

Clutches of eggs are laid on leaves in the forest (Myers 1969). Eggs turn white shortly after being laid (Savage 2002).

Ecology behavior and evolution

Diet

A variety of small arthropods, including dipterans and orthopterans but not ants (Lieberman 1986).

Ecology

May be found on low vegetation in the forest (Savage 2002).

Behavior and communication

Females brood their eggs, covering them with their bodies (Myers 1969).

Karyotype

2N = 32 (DeWeese 1976)

Taxonomy and systematics

Taxonomy

Authority

Barbour 1928

Synonyms

Eleutherodactylus caryophyllaceus, Syrrhopus caryophyllaceus

Type locality

La Loma on the trail from Chiriquicito to Boquete, Bocas del Toro Province, Panama

Habitat and distribution

Habitat

Lowland and premontane forest to 1900 m.

Countries

countries
Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama

Map

Pristimantis caryophyllaceus distribution
Distrubution map (IUCN)

Bibliography

Barbour, T. 1928. New Central American frogs. Proceedings of the New England Zoological Club. Cambridge, Massachusetts 10: 25-31.

DeWeese, JE. 1976. The karyotypes of Middle American frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Leptodactylidae): A case study of the significance of the karyologic method. PhD dissertation. University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Dunn, E.R. 1937. The amphibian and reptilian fauna of bromeliads in Costa Rica and Panama. Copeia 1937: 163-67.

Glaw, F and M Vences. 1997. Anuran eye colouration: definitions, variation, taxonomic implications and possible functions. In: Böhme, W, W Bischoff, and T Ziegler. Eds. Herpetologia Bonnensis. SEH Proceedings, Bonn.

Goldberg, SR and CR Bursey. 2008. Helminths from fifteen species of frogs (Anura, Hylidae) from Costa Rica. Phyllomedusa 7(1): 25-33

Guyer, C and MA Donnelly. 2005. Amphibians and Reptiles of La Selva, Costa Rica and the Caribbean Slope: A Comprehensive Guide. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Hedges, SB, WE Duellman and MP Heinicke. 2008. New World direct-developing frogs (Anura: Terrarana): molecular phylogeny, classification, biogeography, and conservation. Zootaxa 1737: 1-182.

Heinen, JT. 1992. Comparisons of the leaf litter herpetofauna in abandoned cacao plantations and primary rain forest in Costa Rica: some implications for faunal restoration. Biotropica 24(3): 431-439.

Ibáñez, R, F Solís, C Jaramillo, and AS Rand. 2000. An overwiew of the herpetology of Panama. In: Johnson, JD, RG Webb, and OA Flores-Villela. Eds. Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation, pp. 159-170. The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.

Lieberman, SS. 1986. Ecology of the leaf litter herpetofauna of a Neotropical rain forest La Selva, Costa Rica. Acta Zoologica Mexicana Nueva Serie 15: 1-72.

Lips, KR, F Brem, R Brenes, JD Reeve, RA Alford, J Voyles, C Carey, L Livo, AP Pessier, and JP Collins. 2006. Emerging infectious disease and the loss of biodiversity in a Neotropical amphibian community. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103(9): 3165-3170.

Lips, KR, JD Reeve, and LR Witters. 2003. Ecological traits predicting amphibian population declines in Central America. Conservation Biology 17(4): 1078-1088.

Lips, KR. 1999. Mass mortality and population declines of anurans at an upland site in western Panama. Conservation Biology 13(1): 117-125.

Lynch, JD and WE Duellman. 1997. Frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus in western Ecuador: Systematics, ecology, and biogeography. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Special Publication 23: 1-236.

Lynch, JD. 1980. Systematic status and distribution of some poorly known frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus from the Chocoan lowlands of South America. Herpetologica 36(2): 175-189.

Lynch, JD. 1986. The definition of the Middle American clade of Eleutherodactylus based on jaw musculature (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae). Herpetologica 42(2): 248-258.

Miyamoto, MM. 1984. Central American Frogs Allied to Eleutherodactylus cruentus: Allozyme and Morphological Data. Journal of Herpetology 18(3): 256-263.

Myers, CW. 1969. Ecological geography of cloud forest in Panama. American Museum of Natural History Novitates 2396: 1-52.

Savage, JM. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago

Woodhams, DC, VL Kilburn , LK Reinert, J Voyles , D Medina, RIbáñez, AD Hyatt, DG Boyle, JD Pask, DM Green, and LA Rollins-Smith. 2008. Chytridiomycosis and amphibian population declines continue to spread eastward in Panama. EcoHealth 5(3): 268-274.

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