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Incilius melanochlorus Cope 1877

Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)
Incilius melanochlorus
Incilius melanochlorus (Wet Forest Toad): Dorsal View
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Common name

Dark Green Toad, Wet Forest Toad

Identification

Adult

Species description based on Savage (2002). A medium to large toad (males to 65 mm, females to 103 mm).

Incilius melanochlorus Adult 1

Dorsal

The dorsum is light brown, often with lighter brown bands along the sides of the dorsal surface. A thin, light middorsal stripe is present. The dorsum in females is mottled with darker brown. The lateral surfaces are dark, and bordered above by a row of light-colored warts. Dark bars are present on the upper surfaces of the thighs. The dorsum is very warty. The cranial crests are well-developed. The paratoid glands are small and triangular in shape.

Incilius melanochlorus Dorsal 1

Ventral

The ventral surface is yellowish. In males, the vocal sac has a greenish cast.

Incilius melanochlorus Ventral 1

Eye

The upper half of the iris is gold, and the lower half golden brown. A thin, dark line separates the upper and lower halves of the eyes.

Life history

Breeding season

Breeding occurs in large streams during the dry season (Savage 2002).

Metamorph juvenile

The dorsum of juveniles is mottled, as in females (Savage 2002).

Ecology behavior and evolution

Call

A short trill (Savage 2002). The vocal sac is round when inflated (Savage 2002).

Taxonomy and systematics

Taxonomy

  • Kingdom:Animalia
    • Phylum:Chordata

Authority

Cope 1877

Synonyms

Bufo melanochlorus, Cranopsis melanochlora, Ollotis melanochlora

Type locality

Costa Rica, east or eastern, Cantón de Limón, Provincia de Limón

Habitat and distribution

Habitat

Lowland and premontane forest to just over 1000 m.

Countries

countries
Costa Rica, Panama

Map

Incilius melanochlorus distribution
Distrubution map (IUCN)

Bibliography

Bell, KE and MA Donnelly. 2006. Influence of forest fragmentation on community structure of frogs and lizards in northeastern Costa Rica. Influencia de la fragmentación del bosque sobre la estructura comunitaria de ranas y lagartijas en el noreste de Costa Rica. Conservation Biology 20(6): 1750-1760.

Cope, ED. 1877. Tenth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 17: 85-98.

Frost, DR, JR Mendelson III, and JB Pramuk. 2009. Further notes on the nomenclature of Middle American toads (Bufonidae). Copeia 2009: 418-419.

Frost, DR, T Grant, and JR Mendeloson, III. 2006. Ollotis Cope, 1875, is the oldest name for the genus current referred to as Cranopsis Cope, 1875. Copeia 2006: 558.

Guyer, C and MA Donnelly. 2005. Amphibians and Reptiles of La Selva, Costa Rica and the Caribbean Slope: A Comprehensive Guide. University of California Press, Berkeley.


Heyer, WR. 1967. A herpetofaunal study of an ecological transect through the Cordillera de Tilarán, Costa Rica. Copeia 1967(2): 259-271

Jaramillo, CA and R Ibanez. 2009. Geographic distribution: Incilius melanochlorus. Herpetological Review 40: 108.

Köhler, G, AZ Quintana, F Buitrago, and H Diethert. 2004. New and noteworthy records of amphibians and reptiles from Nicaragua. Salamandra 40(1): 15-24.

McDiarmid, RW and JM Savage. 2005. The herpetofauna of the Rincon area, Peninsula de Osa, Costa Rica, a Central American lowland evergreen forest site. In: Ecology and evolution in the tropics: a herpetological perspective. Kluge, AG, MA Donnelly, BI Crother, C Guyer, and MH Wake. Eds. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

O'Neill, EM and JR Mendelson III. 2004. Taxonomy of Costa Rican toads referred to Bufo melanochlorus Cope, with the description of a new species. Journal of Herpetology 38(4): 487-494.

Pounds, JA, MPL Fogden, JM Savage, and GC Gorman. 1997. Tests of null models for amphibian declines on a tropical mountain. Conservation Biology 11(6): 1307-1322.

Savage, JM. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Sunyer, J, G Paiz, DM Dehling, and G Kohler. 2009. A collection of amphibians from Río San Juan, southeastern Nicaragua. Herpetology Notes 2: 189-202.

Taylor, EH. 1952. A review of the frogs and toads of Costa Rica. Revisión de las ranas y sapos de Costa Rica. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin: 35(1): 577-941.