Main Banner
Browse Species

Agalychnis callidryas Cope 1862

Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas (Red-eyed leaf-frog)

Common name

Red-eyed Treefrog, Red-eyed Leaf Frog


Agalychnis callidryas embryos hatch early to escape a wide variety of egg-stage risks, including snake and wasp predation, fungal infection, and oxygen deprivation (Warkentin 1995, Warkentin 2000, Warkentin et al. 2001, Warkentin 2002).



Species description based on Ibanez et al (1999), Duellman (2001), and Savage (2002). Moderately-sized green treefrog with very slender arms and legs. Males are smaller than females: males to 56 mm; females to 71 mm.

Agalychnis callidryas Adult 1


Bright to dark green. The dorsal skin is smooth, but may have one to many slightly raised white spots.

Agalychnis callidryas Dorsal 1


Creamy white. Ventral surface slightly granular.

Agalychnis callidryas Ventral 1

Concealed surfaces

Concealed portions of the thigh are orange or sometimes blue.

Agalychnis callidryas Concealed surfaces 1

Distinguishing characteristics

Agalychnis callidryas has dark blue to purple flanks with vertical bars that range in color from cream to yellow. The width and number of vertical bars varies greatly.


Iris bright red. Pupil vertical. Palpebral membrane has pale to bright yellow reticulations.

Agalychnis callidryas Eye 1 Agalychnis callidryas Eye 2


Hands and feet moderately webbed. Toes with large terminal discs. Hands and feet are mostly orange.

Life history

Breeding season

The breeding season is largely concordant with the rainy season (Duellman 1970). In Panama, the breeding season lasts roughly from May to November or even January, depending on the duration of the rainy season. Large breeding choruses form at the edges of temporary and permanent ponds, particularly on nights after heavy afternoon rainstorms. Males call from trees and bushes around ponds. It is thought that females ovulate at least twice during the breeding season (Duellman 2001).

Agalychnis callidryas Breeding season 1 Agalychnis callidryas Breeding season 2


Eggs are laid terrestrially on leaves overhanging water. Eggs range in color from white to yellow to green to teal. The jelly surrounding the eggs is clear but quite thick. Typically, multiple clutches of less than 10 to more than 100 eggs are laid by a single female in a night (Duellman 2001). Females must go to the water prior to laying a clutch of eggs to absorb water to hydrate the jelly surrounding the clutch (Pyburn 1970). Eggs become capable of hatching four days post-oviposition, but if undisturbed, embryos typically remain in the egg until the night of age 6 days (Warkentin 1995).

Agalychnis callidryas Egg 1 Agalychnis callidryas Egg 2 Agalychnis callidryas Egg 3


Tadpoles develop in ponds where they can easily be dipnetted from the water column. Tadpole bodies are mostly tannish brown to grey or bluish. Caudal fins are transparent, however the tail sometimes develops dark grey pigmentation. Tadpoles typically orient themselves almost vertically, with the head up, in the water column. Agalychnis callidryas tadpoles survive for no more than 20 hours out of water (Valerio 1971). Tadpoles are rather tasteless (Wassersug 1971).Tadpoles are primarily midwater suspension feeders (Satel and Wassersug 1981). However, tadpoles have also been observed feeding on dead conspecifics, fish flakes, and rabbit chow (Hughey pers. obs.).

Agalychnis callidryas Tadpole 1 Agalychnis callidryas Tadpole 2

Metamorph juvenile

Metamorphs emerge in as little as four weeks but duration of the larval stage varies considerably depending on pond conditions. Metamorphs range in color from green to brown. The eye is initially yellow and newly emerged metamorphs lack side patterning. Adult coloration becomes apparent within several weeks (Starrett 1960). Time to maturity and lifespan in the wild is unknown.

Agalychnis callidryas Metamorph juvenile 1 Agalychnis callidryas Metamorph juvenile 2

Ecology behavior and evolution


Adult diet is unknown. Presumably adults eat small arthropods.

Agalychnis callidryas Diet 1


Adults likely live in the forest canopy. Frogs have been heard calling from high in the trees just as dusk falls, and observed descending to breeding ponds (Duellman 2001). Individuals have been found in palm fronds (Stuart 1958) and bromeliads (Duellman 2001) during the dry season. Egg consumers include snakes (Warkentin 1995, Ryan and Lips 2004), wasps (Warkentin 20001) and a pathogenic fungus (Villa 1979, Warkentin et al. 2000). Monkeys have also been observed eating frog eggs (Hughey pers. obs.). Clutches sometimes become infested with phorid and psychodid fly larvae (Villa 1980). Fly larvae largely subsist on eggs that are already dead, but occasionally attack and kill live embryos of other species of frogs (Villa 1980, Villa and Townsend 1983). If they fall into the water, eggs may be eaten by con- and hetero-specific tadpoles as well as the turtle Kinosternon leucostomum, but not by fish (Roberts 1994). Tadpoles are consumed by a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate predators (Touchon and Vonesh pers. comm.). Adults are susceptible to infection by at least 4 species of helminths (Goldberg and Helsey 2008). Because A. callidryas are not as susceptible as other species to chytridiomycosis, they may act as disease reservoirs (Lips et al. 2006).

Agalychnis callidryas Ecology 1 Agalychnis callidryas Ecology 2 Agalychnis callidryas Ecology 3 Agalychnis callidryas Ecology 4 Agalychnis callidryas Ecology 5 Agalychnis callidryas Ecology 6


A single or sometimes double "chock". Males produce aggressive chuckles towards other males (Pyburn 1970). Duellman (1970) and Gray and Rand (1970) reported calling activity at daybreak.

Agalychnis callidryas Call 1

Behavior and communication

Eggs hatch prematurely in response to disturbance (Warkentin 1995, Warkentin et al. 2000, Warkentin 2001). Embryos can distinguish between dangerous and benign disturbances based on the vibrational frequencies produced by the disturbance as well as the temporal pattern of the vibrations (Warkentin 2005, Warkentin et al. 2006, Caldwell et al. 2009). Embryos do not hatch immediately upon disturbance. Instead, embryos require time to sample cues; thus, hatching is delayed to until enough information is accrued (Warkentin et al. 2007). Tadpoles also adjust the timing of metamorphosis, emerging smaller in the presence of tadpole predators but later and larger if there are metamorph predators (Vonesh and Warkentin 2006). Males often engage in aggressive interactions, ranging from rapid push-ups to wrestling (Caldwell et al. 2010). Many males will grab onto and try to amplex a female, and multiple paternity sometimes results from multiple male breeding (d'Orgeix and Turner 1995). Amplexus is axillary. For an extensive description of breeding behavior see Pyburn (1964, 1970) and McCranie et al. (2003).

Agalychnis callidryas Behavior communication 1


2N = 26 (Duellman and Cole 1965, Schmid et al. 1995).


Considerable geographic variation in body size, flank coloration and patterning, and leg coloration exists in A. callidryas (Robertson 2008, Robertson and Robertson 2008, Robertson et al. 2009). Patterns of biogeographic diversification differ from those of Dendropsophus ebbraccatus (Robertson et al. 2009). Hatching in response to risk appears to be an ancestral characteristic in phyllomedusines (Gomez-Mestre et al. 2008). The trait was most likely originally a response to flooding, but some species, such as A. callidryas, have evolved to respond to additional risks such as snakes (Gomez-Mestre and Warkentin 2007).


Agalychnis callidryas have very low calling rates (Duellman and Pyles 1983). The trunk muscles of this species (used for calling) have both low enzyme activity (Bevier 1995) and low mitochondrial volume (Ressel 1996) compared to other frogs with higher calling rates. The skin of A. callidryas has low reflectance in visible wavelengths but reflectance is higher in the near infrared (Emerson et al 1990). Testis size larger than average, probably because of multiple male mating in this species (Emerson 1997). Oxygen availability is variable within the egg (Warkentin et al. 2005). Embryos have large external gills, which they position to maximize oxygen consumption (Rogge and Warkentin 2008, Warkentin et al. 2005). Prostaglandins regulate external gill loss of embryos (Warkentin and Wassersug 2001).

Taxonomy and systematics


  • Kingdom:Animalia
    • Phylum:Chordata


Cope 1862


Agalychnis callidryas taylori, Agalychnis helenae, Hyla callidryas, Phyllomedusa callidryas, Phyllomedusa helenae


Greek: aga = a lychnis = plant with scarlet flowers kallos = beautiful Dryas = tree nymph

Type locality

"Darien, Panama"

Habitat and distribution


Humid, lowland forest to less than 1000 m (Duellman 1970).


Belize, Columbia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Columbia


Agalychnis callidryas distribution
Distrubution map (IUCN)


Altig, R. 1987. Key to the Anuran Tadpoles of Mexico. The Southwestern Naturalist 32(1): 75-84

Bagnara, JT, JD Taylor, and G Prota. 1973. Color changes, unusual melanosomes, and a new pigment from leaf frogs. Science, New Series 182(4116): 1034-1035.

Bevier, CR. 1995. Biochemical correlates of communication activity in neotropical frogs. Physiological Zoology 68: 1118-1142.

Breder, CM. 1946. Amphibians and reptiles of the Rio Chucunaque drainage, Darien, Panama, with notes on their life histories and habits. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 86: 375-436.

Briggs, VS. 2008. Mating patterns of red-eyed treefrogs, Agalychnis callidryas and A. moreletii. Ethology 114(5): 489-498.

Burton, TC. 1998. Are the distal extensor muscles of the fingers of anurans an adaptation to arboreality? Journal of Herpetology 32(4): 611-617.

Caldwell, MS, JG McDaniel, and KM Warkentin. 2009. Frequency information in the vibration-cued escape hatching of red-eyed treefrogs. Journal of Experimental Biology 212: 566-575.

Caldwell, MS, GR Johnston, JG McDaniel, and KM Warkentin. 2010. Vibrational signaling in the agonistic interactions of red-eyed treefrogs. Current Biology 20(11): 1012-1017.

Cope, ED. 1862. Catalogue of the reptiles obtained during the explorations of the Parana, Paraguay, Vermejo, and Uruguay Rivers, by Captain Thos. J. Page, U.S.N., and of those procured by Lieut. N. Michler, U.S. Top. Eng., Commander of the expedition conducting the survey. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 14: 346-359.

Donnelly, MA and C Guyer. 1994. Patterns of reproduction and habitat use in an assemblage of Neotropical hylid frogs. Oecologia 98: 291-302.

D'Orgeix, CA and BJ Turner. 1995. Multiple paternity in the red-eyed treefrog Agalychnis callidryas (Cope). Molecular Ecology 4: 505-508.

Duellman, WE and CJ Cole. 1965. Studies of chromosomes of some anuran amphibians (Hylidae and Centrolenidae). Systematic Zoology 14(2): 139-143

Duellman, WE and L Trueb. 1986. The Biology of Amphibians. McGraw-Hill Publishing, New York.

Duellman, WE and RA Pyles. 1983. Acoustic resource partitioning in anuran communities. Copeia 1983: 639-649.

Duellman, WE. 1963. Amphibians and reptiles of the rainforest of southern El Petén, Guatemala. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 15: 205-249.

Duellman, WE. 1966. The Central American herpetofauna: an ecological perspective. Copeia 1966 (4): 700-719

Duellman, WE. 1967. Courtship isolating mechanisms in Costa Rican hylid frogs. Herpetologica 23 (3): 169-183

Duellman, WE. 1970. The Hylid Frogs of Middle America. Monographs of the Museum of Natural History University of Kansas.

Duellman, WE. 2001. The Hylid Frogs of Middle America. 2nd ed. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York.

Dunn, ER, and LC Stuart. 1951. Comments on Some Recent Restrictions of Type Localities of Certain South and Central American Amphibians and Reptiles. Copeia 1951(1): 55-61.

Dunn, ER. 1931. The amphibians of Barro Colorado Island. Occasional Papers of the Boston Society of Natural History 5: 403-421.

Emerson, SB, TA Cooper and JR Ehleringer. 1990. Convergence in reflectance spectra among treefrogs. Functional Ecology 4(1): 47-51.

Emerson, SB. 1997. Testis size variation: testing the alternatives. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 41(4): 227-235.

Faivovich, J, CFB Haddad, PCO Garcia, DR Frost, JA Campbell, and WC Wheeler. 2005. Systematic review of the frog family Hylidae, with special reference to Hylinae: Phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History: 1-240.

Fugler, CM and RG Webb. 1957. Some noteworthy reptiles and amphibians from the states of Oaxaca and Veracruz. Herpetologica 13(2): 103-108

Goin, CJ. 1960. Amphibians, pioneers of terrestrial breeding habits. Smithsonian Report pp. 427-445.

Goldberg, SR & CR Bursey. 2008. Helminths from fifteen species of frogs (Anura, Hylidae) from Costa Rica. Phyllomedusa 7(1): 25-33

Gomez-Mestre, I , JJ Wiens and KM Warkentin. 2008. Evolution of adaptive plasticity: risk-sensitive hatching in neotropical treefrogs. Ecological Monographs 78(2): 205-224.

Gomez-Mestre, I and KM Warkentin. 2007. To hatch and hatch not: similar selective trade-offs but different responses to egg predators in two closely related, syntopic treefrogs. Oecologia 153(1): 197-206.

Gray, LA and AS Rand. 1997. A daybreak chorus in the frog, Agalychnis callidryas. Journal of Herpetology 31(3): 440-441.

Haas, A. 2003. Phylogeny of frogs as inferred from primarily larval characters (Amphibia: Anura). Cladistics 19(1): 23-89.

Hassl, A. 1991. An asymptomatic Cryptosporidia (Apicomplexa: Coccidia) infection in Agalychnis callidryas (COPE,1862) (Anura: Hylidae). Herpetozoa 4: 127–131.

Heyer, WR. 1967. A herpetofaunal study of an ecological transect through the Cordillera de Tilarán, Costa Rica. Copeia 1967(2): 259-271

Heyer, WR. 1976. Studies in larval amphibian habitat partitioning. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 242: 1-27.

Howland, HC, M Howland, A Giunta and TW Cronin. 1997. Corneal curvatures and refractions of central American frogs. Vision Research 37(2): 169-174.

Ibañez, R, AS Rand, and CA Jaramillo. 1999. Los anfibios del Monumento Natural Barro Colorado, Parque Nacional Soberanía y areas adyacentes. Mizrachi, E. and Pujol, S.A., Santa Fe de Bogota.

Ibáñez, R, F Solís, C Jaramillo, and S Rand. 2000. An overwiew of the herpetology of Panama. In: Johnson, J.D., Webb, R.G. and Flores-Villela, O.A. (eds), Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation, pp. 159-170. The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.

Köhler, G. 2001. Anfibios y Reptiles de Nicaragua. Herpeton, Offenbach, Germany.

Lee, JC. 1996. The Amphibians and Reptiles of the Yucatán Peninsula. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Leenders, T. 2001. A Guide to Amphibians And Reptiles of Costa Rica. Zona Tropical, Miami.

Lips, K and JM Savage. 1996. Key to the Known Tadpoles (Amphibia: Anura) of Costa Rica. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 31(1): 17-26

Lips, KR, FBrem, R Brenes, JD Reeve, RA Alford, J Voyles, C Carey, L Livo, AP Pessier and JP Collins. 2006. Emerging Infectious Disease and the Loss of Biodiversity in a Neotropical Amphibian Community. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(9): 3165-3170.

Lynch, JD and CM Fugler. 1965. A Survey of the Frogs of Honduras. Journal of the Ohio Herpetological Society 5(1): 5-18.

Marenah, L, C Shaw, DF Orr, S McClean, PF Flatt and Y HA Abdel-Wahab. 2004. Isolation and characterisation of an unexpected class of insulinotropic peptides in the skin of the frog Agalychnis litodryas. Regulatory Peptides 120(1-3): 33-38.

Martin, AA and GF Watson. 1971. Life history as an aid to generic delimitation in the family Hylidae. Copeia 1971(1): 78-89

Maxon, L. 1976. The phylogenetic status of phyllomedusine frogs (hylidae) as evidenced from immunological studies of their serum albumins. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 32(9): 1149-1150.

McCranie, JR, LD Wilson, and JH Townsend. 2003. Agalychnis callidryas (red-eyed treefrog) reproduction. Herpetological Review 34(1): 43.

McDiarmid, R and R Altig, eds. 1999. Tadpoles: The Biology of Anuran Larvae. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

Meyer, DL, AG Jadhaoa and E Kicliterb. 1996. Soybean agglutinin binding by primary olfactory and primary accessory olfactory projections in different frogs. Brain Research 722(1-2): 222-226.

Mignogna, G, C Severina, GF Erspamer, R Siciliano, G Kreil, and D Barra. 1997. Tachykinins and other biologically active peptides from the skin of the Costa Rican phyllomedusid frog Agalychnis callidryas. Peptides 18(3): 367-372.

Pyburn, WF. 1963. Observations on the life history of the treefrog, Phyllomedusa callidryas (Cope). Texas Journal of Science 15: 155-170.

Pyburn, WF. 1964. Breeding behavior of the leaf-frog, Phyllomedusa callidryas, in southern Veracruz. The American Philosophical Society Yearbook 1964: 291-294.

Pyburn, WF. 1970. Breeding behavior of the leaf-frogs Phyllomedusa callidryas and Phyllomedusa dacnicolor in Mexico. Copeia 2: 209-218.

Ressel, SJ. 1993. A morphometric analysis of anuran skeletal muscle ultrastructure: implications for the functional design of muscle in ectotherms. PhD diss. University of Connecticut, Storrs.

Ressel, SJ. 1996. Ultrastructural properties of muscles used for call production in neotropical frogs. Physiological Zoology 69:952-973.

Roberts, WE. 1994. Evolution and ecology of arboreal egg-laying frogs. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

Robertson JM. 2008. Genetic and phenotypic diversity patterns in two polymorphic, neotropical anurans: biogeography, gene flow and selection. PhD thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

Robertson, JM and AD Robertson. 2008. Spatial and temporal patterns of phenotypic variation in a Neotropical frog. Journal of Biogeography 35(5): 830-843.

Robertson, JM, C Duryea, and K Zamudio. 2009. Discordant patterns of evolutionary differentiation in two Neotropical treefrogs. Molecular Ecology 18(7): 1375-1395.

Rogge, JR and KM Warkentin. 2008. External gills and adaptive embryo behavior facilitate synchronous development and hatching plasticity under respiratory constraint. Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 3627-3635.

Ruiz-Carranza, PM, MC Ardila-Robayo, and JD Lynch. 1996. Lista actualizada de la fauna de Amphibia de Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales: 365-415.

Ryan, MJ and KR Lips. 2004. Sibon argus (NCN) diet. Herpetological Review 35(3): 278.

San Mauro, D, M Vences, MAlcobendas, R Zardoya, and A Meyer. 2005. Initial diversification of living amphibians predated the breakup of Pangaea. American Naturalist 165: 590–599.

Satel, SL and RJ Wassersug. 1981. On the relative sizes of buccal floor depressor and elevator musculature in tadpoles. Copeia 1981: 129-137.

Savage, JM. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Schmid, M, W Feichtinger, R Weimer, C Mais, F Bolaños, and P León. 1995. Chromosome banding in AmphibiaXXI. Inversion polymorphism and multiple nucleolus organizer regions in Agalychnis callidryas (Anura, Hylidae). Cytogenetics and cell genetics 69(1/2): 18-26.

Scott, NJ. 1983. Agalychnis callidryas. In D. H. Janzen (Ed.). Costa Rican natural history, pp. 374–375. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

Shi, Y-B. 2000. Amphibian Metamorphosis: From Morphology to Molecular Biology. Wiley-Liss, Inc., New York.

Smetanick, MT. RO de Sá, and GP Radice. 2000. Do timing and pattern of myogenesis correlate with life history mode in anurans? Journal of Herpetology 34(4): 637-642.

Starrett, P. 1960. Descriptions of tadpoles of Middle American frogs. Miscellaneous Publications Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 110: 5-37.

Stuart, LC. A study of the herpetofauna of the Uaxactun-Tikal area of northern El Peten, Guatemala. Contr. Lab. Vert. Biol. Univ. Michigan no. 122: 1-150.

Stuart, S, M Hoffmann, J Chanson, N Cox, R Berridge, P Ramani, and B Young. eds. 2008. Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Taigen, TL, SB Emerson and FH Pough. 1982. Ecological correlates of anuran exercise physiology. Oecologia 52(1): 49-56.

Taylor, EH. 1952. A new hylid of the genus Agalychnis from Southwestern Mexico. Copeia 1952(1): 31-32.

Tennesson, JA. 2005. Enhanced synonymous site divergence in positively selected vertebrate antimicrobial peptide genes. Journal of Molecular Evolution 61(4): 445-455.

Tyler, MJ and M Davies. 1978. Phylogenetic Relationships of Australian Hyline and Neotropical Phyllomedusine Frogs of the family Hylidae. Herpetologica 34(2): 219-224.

Valerio, CE. 1971. Ability of some tropical tadpoles to survive without water. Copeia 1971:364-365.

Villa, J, and DS Townsend. 1983. Viable frog eggs eaten by phorid fly larvae. Journal of Herpetology 17(3): 278-281.

Villa, J. 1977. A symbiotic relationship between frog (Amphibia, Anura, Centrolenidae) and fly larvae (Drosophilidae). Journal of Herpetology 11(3): 317-322

Villa, J. 1979. Two fungi lethal to frog eggs in Central America. Copeia 1979: 650-655.

Villa, J. 1980. "Frogflies" from Central and South America with notes on other organisms of the amphibian egg microhabitat. Brenesia 17: 49-68.

Vonesh, JR and KM Warkentin. 2006. Opposite shifts in size at metamorphosis in response to larval and metamorph predators. Ecology 87(3): 556-562.

Wang, L, M Zhou, A McClelland, A Reilly, T Chen, R Gagliardo, B Walker and C Shaw. 2008. Novel dermaseptin, adenoregulin and caerin homologs from the Central American red-eyed leaf frog, Agalychnis callidryas, revealed by functional peptidomics of defensive skin secretion. Biochimie 90(10): 1435-1441.

Warkentin, KM, CR Buckley, and KA Metcalf. 2006. Development of red-eyed treefrog eggs affects efficiency and choices of egg-foraging wasps. Animal Behavior 71: 417-425.

Warkentin, KM, and RJ Wassersug. 2001. Do prostaglandins regulate external gill regression in anurans? Journal of Experimental Zoology 289: 366-373.

Warkentin, KM, CR Currie, and SA Rehner. 2001. Egg-killing fungus induces early hatching of red-eyed treefrog eggs. Ecology 82(10): 2860-2869.

Warkentin, KM, I Gomez-Mestre, and JG McDaniel. 2005. Development, surface exposure, and embryo behavior affect oxygen levels in eggs of the red‐eyed treefrog, Agalychnis callidryas. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 78(6):956–966.

Warkentin, KM, MS Caldwell and JG McDaniel. 2006. Temporal pattern cues in vibrational risk assessment by embryos of the red-eyed treefrog, Agalychnis callidryas. Journal of Experimental Biology 209(8): 1376-1384.

Warkentin, KM, MS Caldwell, TD Siok, AT D'Amato and JG McDaniel. 2007. Flexible information sampling in vibrational assessment of predation risk by red-eyed treefrog embryos. Journal of Experimental Biology 210: 614-619.

Warkentin, KM. 1995. Adaptive plasticity in hatching age: A response to predation risk trade-offs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 92: 3507-3510.

Warkentin, KM. 1999. Effects of hatching age on development and hatchling morphology in the red-eyed tree frog, Agalychnis callidryas. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 68(3): 443-470.

Warkentin, KM. 1999. The development of behavioral defenses: a mechanistic analysis of vulnerability in red-eyed tree frog hatchlings. Behavioral Ecology 10(3): 251-262.

Warkentin, KM. 2000. Environmental and developmental effects on external gill loss in the red-eyed tree frog, Agalychnis callidryas. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: 73(5): 557-565.

Warkentin, KM. 2000. Wasp predation and wasp-induced hatching of red-eyed treefrog eggs. Animal Behavior 60: 503-510.

Warkentin, KM. 2002. Hatching timing, oxygen availability and external gill regression in the treefrog, Agalychnis callidryas. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 75: 155-164.

Warkentin, KM. 2005. How do embryos assess risk? Vibrational cues in predator-induced hatching of red-eyed treefrogs. Animal Behavior 70: 59-71.

Warkentin, KM. 2007. Oxygen, gills, and embryo behavior: mechanisms of adaptive plasticity in hatching. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 148(4): 720-731.

Wassersug, RJ. 1971. On the comparative palatability of some dry-season tadpoles from Costa Rica. American Midland Naturalist 86(1): 101-109.

Well, KD. 2007. Ecology and Behavior of Amphibians. University of Chicago Press. Chicago.

Wiens, JJ, CH Graham, DS Moen, SA Smith, and TW Reeder 2006. Evolutionary and ecological causes of the latitudinal diversity gradient in Hylid Frogs: Treefrog trees unearth the roots of high tropical diversity. American Naturalist 168: 579–596.

Wiens, JJ, JW Fetzner Jr., CL Parkinson and TW Reeder. 2005. Hylid Frog Phylogeny and sampling strategies for speciose clades. Systematic Biology 54(5): 778-807

Withers, PC, SS Hillman, and RC Drewes. 2005. Evaporative water loss and skin lipids of anuran amphibians. Journal of Experimental Zoology 232(1): 11-17.

Wollerman, L and RH Wiley. 2002. Possibilities for error during communication by neotropical frogs in a complex acoustic environment. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 52:465-473.

Yanoviak, SP. 2001. The macrofauna of water-filled tree holes on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Biotropica 33(1): 110-120.

Additional resources

Audio Files

Vocalization of Agalychnis callidryas


Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas (Red-eyed leaf-frog)
Agalychnis callidryas (Red-eyed leaf-frog)
Agalychnis callidryas (Red-eyed leaf-frog)
Agalychnis callidryas (Red-eyed leaf-frog)
Agalychnis callidryas (Red-eyed leaf-frog)
Red-eyed treefrog eggs infested with fungus.
Agalychnis callidryas eggs
Agalychnis callidryas. Sleeping male
Agalychnis callidryas. Sleeping male
Agalychnis callidryas. Two and three day old eggs.
Azteca sp. predation on Agalychnis callidryas eggs.
Katydid preying on A. callidryas eggs.
Katydid preying on A. callidryas eggs.
Katydid preying on A. callidryas eggs.
Katydid preying on A. callidryas eggs.
Adult Agalychnis callidryas
Adult Agalychnis callidryas
Adult Agalychnis callidryas
Adult Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Adult Agalychnis callidryas
Adult Agalychnis callidryas
Adult Male & female Agalychnis callidryas
Adult Agalychnis callidryas
Adult Agalychnis callidryas
Adult Male & female Agalychnis callidryas
Adult Agalychnis callidryas
Adult Agalychnis callidryas
Adult Agalychnis callidryas
Adult Agalychnis callidryas
Adult Agalychnis callidryas
Adult Agalychnis callidryas
Juvenile Agalychnis callidryas
Adult Agalychnis callidryas
Adult Male & female Agalychnis callidryas
Juvenile Agalychnis callidryas
Adult Agalychnis callidryas
Adult Agalychnis callidryas
Adult Agalychnis callidryas
Adult Agalychnis callidryas
Adult Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas
Agalychnis callidryas