|Limestone reef rock, often in the surf zone.|
|North Carolina thoughout to Brazil, Panama Caribbean.|
|Natural History Notes|
|The urchin is resistant to physical stress (e.g. increased temperature and salinity) and is common in exposed, shallow reef habitats. Its burrowing ability makes it a significant factor in bioerosion of coral reefs. The urchin usually feeds from its burrow, generally at night, primarily on drift algae. Its predators include birds, conchs, and fish. The species is potentially useful as a bioindicator, as individuals have been shown to accumulate certain heavy metals in the gonads, test, spines, and lantern, reflecting degree of exposure to enivronmental pollutants.|
|This urchin reaches a maximum diameter of 150mm. The spines are generally blackish, although some specimens are reddish dorsally.|
|Gonzalez, H., Pomares, M., et. al. 1999. Heavy metals in organisms and sediments from the discharge zone of the submarine sewage outfall of Havana City, Cuba. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 38(11): 1048-1051|
McCartney, M. A. and Lessios, H. A. 2002. Quantitative analysis of gametic incompatibility between closely related species of neotropical sea urchins. Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole). 202(2): 166-181
McCartney, M. A., Keller, G., et. al. 2000. Dispersal barriers in tropical oceans and speciation in Atlantic and eastern Pacific sea urchins of the genus Echinometra. Molecular Ecology. 9(9): 1391-1400.
|In Bocas Del Toro|
|Reported By||Hendler, G.; Marine Invertebrate Taxonomy Workshop, Bocas del Toro, August 2003|
|Locality||Observed in Hospital Bay, Cayo Nancy.|
|Observations||Uncommon in Bocas del Toro|
|Collin, R., M.C. Diaz, J. Norenburg, R.M. Rocha, J.A. Sanchez, A. Schulz, M.L. Schwartz and A. Valdes. 2005. Photographic identification guide to some common marine invertebrates of Bocas Del Toro, Panama. Caribbean Journal of Science 41: 638-707. |
Hendler, Gordon, John E. Miller, David L. Pawson, and Porter M. Kier. 1995. Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, and Allies - Echinoderms of Florida and the Caribbean. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington D. C. 390pp.
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