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the audubon panama - stri bird database

History of the Database

The Audubon-STRI Bird database is a joint effort by the Panama Audubon Society (PAS) and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI). It currently consists of over 17,000 records of bird sightings in Panama culled from 22 books, papers and reports starting with papers by Osbert Salvin in 1867 in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London and including the most recent guide book, A Guide to the Birds of Panama by Robert Ridgely and John A. Gwynne in 1989 and a paper by Storrs Olson in 1993. Some of the earliest observations, dating back to 1844, were recorded in Alexander Wetmore's 4 volume work, the Birds of the Republic of Panama published from 1965 to 1973. Both the PAS and STRI plan to enter more data of recent bird sightings as they become available.

The species names follow the A.O.U. Check-list of North American Birds, Seventh Edition, release 45. (http://aou.org/checklist/index.php3, http://aou.org/checklist/Suppl45.pdf). The location names are interpretations of often confusing older names, and can all be found on current maps. They should be considered accurate to about 5 km, except a few marked locations accurate to 20km. Note that in some cases, an older bird sighting is mentioned in one or more later works, so it is possible for the same bird sighting to be in the database multiple times under different authors.

Dr. Eldredge Bermingham, Deputy Director of STRI, developed and promoted the idea of putting this data on the internet with a map server. Dr. George Angehr, Scientific Director for the Panama Audubon Society and also a STRI scientist, carefully reviewed the data, ascertained the current species names and identified the locations and a modern site name for those mentioned in the text. Karl Kaufmann of both PAS and STRI, designed the database and assisted Dr. Angehr in correcting the entries. Else Magaard of STRI helped organize and enter an early version of the database.

This data is available for public non-commercial use. Any use of it must acknowledge both the Panama Audubon Society and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.

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Photos by Christian Ziegler


Leptotila battyi Odontophorus melanotis Premnoplex brunnescens Xiphorhynchus picus Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchu Xiphorhynchus susurrans Campylorhamphus pusillus Dendrocolaptes picumnus Mionectes oleagineus Empidonax flavescens Mitrephanes phaeocercus Campylorhynchus zonatus Basileuterus melanogenys Basileuterus tristriatus Basileuterus fulvicauda Diglossa plumbea Euphonia anneae Chlorothraupis carmioli Tinamus major Nothocercus bonapartei Crypturellus soui Phalacrocorax brasilianus Ardea herodias Accipiter bicolor Accipiter striatus Buteo jamaicensis Buteo swainsoni Buteo platypterus Leucopternis albicollis Leucopternis princeps Spizastur melanoleucus Spizaetus ornatus Spizaetus tyrannus Micrastur semitorquatus Falco sparverius Chamaepetes unicolor Odontophorus leucolaemus Odontophorus guttatus Charadrius vociferus Gallinago delicata Patagioenas fasciata Patagioenas subvinacea Columbina talpacoti Claravis pretiosa Claravis mondetoura Leptotila verreauxi Geotrygon chiriquensis Aratinga finschi Pyrrhura hoffmanni Bolborhynchus lineola Pionopsitta haematotis Coccyzus erythropthalmus Piaya cayana Crotophaga ani Tyto alba Ciccaba virgata Ciccaba nigrolineata Nyctidromus albicollis Caprimulgus carolinensis Caprimulgus saturatus Chaetura vauxi Threnetes ruckeri Phaethornis guy Eutoxeres aquila Campylopterus hemileucurus Florisuga mellivora Colibri delphinae Colibri thalassinus Panterpe insignis Amazilia edward Amazilia tzacatl Eupherusa eximia Eupherusa nigriventris Elvira chionura Lampornis calolaemus .NULL. Lampornis castaneoventris Heliodoxa jacula Selasphorus flammula Eugenes fulgens Heliothryx barroti Selasphorus scintilla Pharomachrus mocinno Trogon collaris Trogon aurantiiventris Chloroceryle americana Electron platyrhynchum Momotus momota Eubucco bourcierii Semnornis frantzii Aulacorhynchus prasinus Pteroglossus torquatus Selenidera spectabilis Piculus rubiginosus Melanerpes formicivorus Melanerpes rubricapillus Veniliornis fumigatus Picoides villosus Campephilus guatemalensis Dendrocincla homochroa Sittasomus griseicapillus Glyphorynchus spirurus Xiphorhynchus erythropygius Lepidocolaptes affinis Cranioleuca erythrops Margarornis rubiginosus Pseudocolaptes lawrencii Syndactyla subalaris Anabacerthia variegaticeps Thripadectes rufobrunneus Philydor rufum Xenops rutilans Dysithamnus mentalis Myrmotherula schisticolor Myrmeciza immaculata Formicarius nigricapillus Gymnopithys leucaspis Grallaria guatimalensis Scytalopus argentifrons Attila spadiceus Pachyramphus versicolor Pachyramphus albogriseus Tityra semifasciata Cephalopterus glabricollis Procnias tricarunculatus Chiroxiphia lanceolata Corapipo altera Sayornis nigricans Tyrannus melancholicus Legatus leucophaius Myiodynastes maculatus Myiodynastes hemichrysus Megarynchus pitangua Myiozetetes similis Myiarchus tuberculifer Contopus cooperi Contopus virens Contopus sordidulus Contopus lugubris Empidonax albigularis Empidonax atriceps Platyrinchus mystaceus Tolmomyias sulphurescens Rhynchocyclus brevirostris Todirostrum cinereum Serpophaga cinerea Elaenia flavogaster Elaenia chiriquensis Elaenia frantzii Zimmerius vilissimus Phyllomyias zeledoni Mionectes olivaceus Pygochelidon cyanoleuca Cyanocorax affinis Cyanolyca cucullata Cyanolyca argentigula Cinclus mexicanus Thryothorus modestus Thryothorus rutilus Troglodytes aedon Troglodytes ochraceus Thryorchilus browni Henicorhina leucophrys Microcerculus marginatus Mimus gilvus Turdus assimilis Turdus grayi Turdus nigrescens Turdus plebejus Myadestes melanops Catharus ustulatus Catharus fuscater Catharus frantzii Catharus aurantiirostris Catharus gracilirostris Zeledonia coronata Bombycilla cedrorum Ptilogonys caudatus Phainoptila melanoxantha Vireo carmioli Vireo flavifrons Vireo olivaceus Vireo philadelphicus Vireo gilvus Hylophilus decurtatus Cyclarhis gujanensis Cyanerpes cyaneus Cyanerpes lucidus Dacnis venusta Mniotilta varia Helmitheros vermivorum Vermivora chrysoptera Vermivora peregrina Parula gutturalis Parula pitiayumi Dendroica virens Dendroica fusca Seiurus aurocapilla Seiurus motacilla Seiurus noveboracensis Oporornis formosus Oporornis philadelphia Oporornis tolmiei Geothlypis poliocephala Wilsonia pusilla Wilsonia canadensis Setophaga ruticilla Myioborus miniatus Myioborus torquatus Basileuterus culicivorus Basileuterus rufifrons Amblycercus holosericeus Icterus galbula Sturnella magna Chlorophonia callophrys Euphonia elegantissima Euphonia luteicapilla Tangara icterocephala Tangara gyrola Tangara dowii Thraupis episcopus Ramphocelus dimidiatus Piranga rubra Piranga leucoptera Piranga bidentata Eucometis penicillata Chlorospingus ophthalmicus Chlorospingus pileatus Saltator maximus Saltator striatipectus Pheucticus tibialis Pheucticus ludovicianus Passerina cyanea Tiaris olivaceus Amaurospiza concolor Volatinia jacarina Carduelis xanthogastra Carduelis psaltria Pezopetes capitalis Atlapetes albinucha Buarremon brunneinucha Lysurus crassirostris Arremonops conirostris Junco vulcani Zonotrichia capensis Coragyps atratus Trogon viridis Cathartes aura Sarcoramphus papa Elanoides forficatus Gampsonyx swainsonii Ictinia plumbea Accipiter superciliosus Leucopternis semiplumbeus Buteogallus urubitinga Ibycter americanus Herpetotheres cachinnans Micrastur ruficollis Falco rufigularis Ortalis cinereiceps Laterallus albigularis Actitis macularius Patagioenas cayennensis Patagioenas speciosa Patagioenas nigrirostris Leptotila cassini Geotrygon montana Crax rubra Penelope purpurascens Ara severus Ara ambiguus Ara chloropterus Ara ararauna Brotogeris jugularis Touit dilectissimus Pionopsitta pyrilia Pionus menstruus Amazona autumnalis Amazona farinosa Neomorphus geoffroyi Crotophaga major Megascops guatemalae Streptoprocne zonaris Chaetura spinicaudus Glaucis hirsutus Phaethornis longirostris Phaethornis striigularis Androdon aequatorialis Discosura conversii Thalurania fannyi Goethalsia bella Amazilia amabilis Chalybura buffonii Heliomaster longirostris Calliphlox mitchellii Trogon melanurus Trogon massena Hylomanes momotula Baryphthengus martii Chloroceryle aenea Nystalus radiatus Notharchus macrorhynchos Notharchus tectus Malacoptila panamensis Nonnula ruficapilla Monasa morphoeus Brachygalba salmoni Jacamerops aureus Capito maculicoronatus Ramphastos sulfuratus Ramphastos swainsonii Picumnus olivaceus Melanerpes pucherani Veniliornis kirkii Piculus callopterus Celeus loricatus Dryocopus lineatus Campephilus haematogaster Campephilus melanoleucos Synallaxis brachyura Xenerpestes minlosi Philydor fuscipenne Automolus ochrolaemus Xenops minutus Sclerurus guatemalensis Dendrocincla fuliginosa Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae Xiphorhynchus lachrymosus Lepidocolaptes souleyetii Campylorhamphus trochilirostri Cymbilaimus lineatus Taraba major Thamnophilus atrinucha Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus Microrhopias quixensis Terenura callinota Cercomacra tyrannina Cercomacra nigricans Gymnocichla nudiceps Myrmeciza exsul Hylophylax naevioides Phaenostictus mcleannani Formicarius analis Pittasoma michleri Hylopezus dives Ornithion brunneicapillus Myiopagis caniceps Myiopagis viridicata Leptopogon superciliaris Myiornis atricapillus Oncostoma olivaceum Todirostrum nigriceps Cnipodectes subbrunneus Rhynchocyclus olivaceus Tolmomyias assimilis Platyrinchus coronatus Onychorhynchus coronatus Terenotriccus erythrurus Myiobius barbatus Myiobius atricaudus Aphanotriccus audax Colonia colonus Laniocera rufescens Rhytipterna holerythra Sirystes sibilator Myiarchus crinitus Myiozetetes granadensis Myiozetetes cayanensis Conopias albovittatus Pachyramphus cinnamomeus Pachyramphus polychopterus Pachyramphus homochrous Lipaugus unirufus Cotinga nattererii Carpodectes hopkei Querula purpurata Schiffornis turdina Sapayoa aenigma Manacus vitellinus Pipra coronata Pipra erythrocephala Donacobius atricapilla Campylorhynchus albobrunneus Thryothorus nigricapillus Thryothorus fasciatoventris Henicorhina leucosticta Cyphorhinus phaeocephalus Microbates cinereiventris Turdus obsoletus Hylophilus ochraceiceps Coereba flaveola Conirostrum leucogenys Tangara inornata Tangara florida Tangara guttata Tangara larvata Dacnis cayana Chlorophanes spiza Euphonia fulvicrissa Euphonia xanthogaster Thraupis palmarum Chlorothraupis olivacea Heterospingus xanthopygius Tachyphonus luctuosus Ramphocelus flammigerus Mitrospingus cassinii Hemithraupis flavicollis Tersina viridis Cyanocompsa cyanoides Buarremon torquatus Arremon aurantiirostris Sporophila americana Sporophila nigricollis Sporophila minuta Oryzoborus angolensis Sturnella militaris Icterus chrysater Icterus mesomelas Cacicus cela Psarocolius wagleri Dendroica castanea Myrmotherula ignota Myrmotherula pacifica Myrmotherula fulviventris Butorides virescens Tigrisoma fasciatum Tigrisoma mexicanum Cochlearius cochlearius Mycteria americana Anas discors Leptodon cayanensis Buteo brachyurus Buteo magnirostris Asturina nitida Leucopternis plumbeus Buteogallus anthracinus Morphnus guianensis Circus cyaneus Geranospiza caerulescens Pandion haliaetus Micrastur mirandollei Odontophorus gujanensis Rhynchortyx cinctus Aramides cajanea Porphyrio martinica Eurypyga helias Jacana jacana Pluvialis squatarola Charadrius semipalmatus Himantopus mexicanus Limnodromus griseus Tringa melanoleuca Sterna sandvicensis Geotrygon veraguensis Coccyzus americanus Pulsatrix perspicillata Lophostrix cristata Glaucidium griseiceps Nyctibius griseus Caprimulgus rufus Chordeiles minor Phaeochroa cuvierii Lepidopyga coeruleogularis Damophila julie Chalybura urochrysia Trogon rufus Trogon violaceus Ceryle torquatus Ceryle alcyon Chloroceryle amazona Chloroceryle inda Thamnistes anabatinus Xenornis setifrons Dysithamnus puncticeps Myrmotherula axillaris Myrmeciza laemosticta Myrmornis torquata Hylopezus perspicillatus Hyloctistes subulatus Sclerurus mexicanus Tyrannus tyrannus Myiodynastes luteiventris Myiarchus panamensis Myiopagis gaimardii Camptostoma obsoletum Chloropipo holochlora Riparia riparia Hirundo rustica Progne chalybea Petrochelidon pyrrhonota Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Thryothorus leucopogon Thryothorus leucotis Polioptila plumbea Ramphocaenus melanurus Vireo altiloquus Vireo flavoviridis Protonotaria citrea Dendroica petechia Cacicus uropygialis Molothrus oryzivorus Dolichonyx oryzivorus Icterus spurius Euphonia minuta Euphonia laniirostris Heterospingus rubrifrons Tachyphonus rufus Sporophila schistacea Saltator grossus Spiza americana Butorides striata Klais guimeti Piaya minuta Colaptes punctigula Thamnophilus nigriceps Automolus rubiginosus Deconychura longicauda Lophotriccus pileatus Empidonax flaviventris Oxyruncus cristatus Tityra inquisitor Thryothorus spadix Myadestes coloratus Habia rubica Chlorospingus inornatus Psarocolius decumanus Anas americana Nomonyx dominicus Geotrygon violacea Geotrygon goldmani Notharchus pectoralis Contopus cinereus Empidonax traillii Oncostoma cinereigulare Phylloscartes flavovirens Sublegatus arenarum Hylophilus aurantiifrons Psarocolius guatimozinus Icterus auricapillus Piranga flava Chrysothlypis chrysomelas Phaethornis anthophilus Pelecanus occidentalis Fregata magnificens Ardea alba Egretta thula Egretta tricolor Nyctanassa violacea Eudocimus albus Platalea ajaja Buteogallus subtilis Milvago chimachima Numenius phaeopus Catoptrophorus semipalmatus Calidris pusilla Columbina minuta Aratinga pertinax Crotophaga sulcirostris Hylocharis eliciae Chlorostilbon assimilis Thamnophilus doliatus Thamnophilus bridgesi Pipra mentalis Manacus aurantiacus Tyrannus savana Lophotriccus pilaris Tachycineta albilinea Thryothorus rufalbus Dumetella carolinensis Dendroica pensylvanica Stercorarius pomarinus Stercorarius parasiticus Stercorarius longicaudus Calidris mauri Agamia agami Sula dactylatra Sula sula Sula leucogaster Panyptila cayennensis Neochelidon tibialis Scytalopus panamensis Emberizoides herbicola Pselliophorus luteoviridis Chlorospingus flavigularis Chlorospingus tacarcunae Pilherodius pileatus Tangara palmeri Tachybaptus dominicus Egretta caerulea Bubulcus ibis Elanus leucurus Harpagus bidentatus Ictinia mississippiensis Lurocalis semitorquatus Goldmania violiceps Myrmeciza longipes Pitangus lictor Empidonax virescens Bangsia arcaei Tachyphonus delatrii Plegadis falcinellus Tigrisoma lineatum Arenaria interpres Sterna maxima Quiscalus mexicanus Nycticorax nycticorax Harpia harpyja Porzana carolina Gallinula chloropus Heliornis fulica Calidris fuscicollis Calidris melanotos Calidris alba Bartramia longicauda Larus atricilla Chlidonias niger Sterna hirundo Sterna antillarum Patagioenas leucocephala Columba livia Coccyzus minor Lophornis delattrei Pitangus sulphuratus Tyrannulus elatus Catharus fuscescens Vireolanius pulchellus Dendroica magnolia Tangara lavinia Habia fuscicauda Saltator atriceps Leptotila plumbeiceps Geotrygon lawrencii Aramides axillaris Amaurolimnas concolor Fulica americana Podilymbus podiceps Jacana spinosa Mesembrinibis cayennensis Jabiru mycteria Aythya affinis Anhinga anhinga Phaethon aethereus Falco peregrinus Parabuteo unicinctus Aratinga nana Pionus senilis Chaetura pelagica Thalurania colombica Galbula ruficauda Piculus simplex Celeus castaneus Chordeiles acutipennis Poecilotriccus sylvia Carpodectes nitidus Thryothorus thoracicus Thryothorus atrogularis Hylocichla mustelina Catharus mexicanus Geothlypis semiflava Icteria virens Passerina caerulea Caryothraustes poliogaster Euphonia gouldi Ramphocelus passerinii Phlogothraupis sanguinolenta Lanio leucothorax Psarocolius montezuma Icterus prosthemelas Cyanocorax morio Thalassarche chrysostoma Diomedea exulans Phoebastria irrorata Pterodroma phaeopygia Puffinus griseus Puffinus lherminieri Puffinus pacificus Oceanodroma tethys Oceanites gracilis Oceanodroma melania Oceanodroma microsoma Phaethon lepturus Sula granti Sula nebouxii Phalacrocorax bougainvillii Ardea cocoi Botaurus lentiginosus Ixobrychus exilis Theristicus caudatus Dendrocygna viduata Dendrocygna bicolor Dendrocygna autumnalis Cairina moschata Sarkidiornis melanotos Anas platyrhynchos Anas acuta Anas cyanoptera Anas clypeata Aythya collaris Cathartes burrovianus Rostrhamus sociabilis Rostrhamus hamatus Chondrohierax uncinatus Buteo albicaudatus Buteo albonotatus Buteogallus meridionalis Busarellus nigricollis Harpyhaliaetus solitarius Caracara cheriway Falco deiroleucus Falco femoralis Falco columbarius Colinus cristatus Odontophorus dialeucos Aramus guarauna Porzana flaviventer Laterallus exilis Pardirallus maculatus Laterallus jamaicensis Haematopus palliatus Vanellus chilensis Pluvialis dominica Charadrius collaris Charadrius wilsonia Limosa fedoa Aphriza virgata Limnodromus scolopaceus Calidris canutus Calidris minutilla Calidris bairdii Calidris alpina Calidris himantopus Tryngites subruficollis Phalaropus lobatus Phalaropus tricolor Stercorarius maccormicki Larus modestus Larus delawarensis Larus argentatus Larus pipixcan Creagrus furcatus Xema sabini Sterna nilotica Sterna caspia Sterna anaethetus Sterna fuscata Anous stolidus Zenaida asiatica Zenaida macroura Zenaida auriculata Geotrygon costaricensis Ara macao Forpus conspicillatus Touit costaricensis Amazona ochrocephala Tapera naevia Dromococcyx phasianellus Megascops choliba Megascops clarkii Bubo virginianus Glaucidium costaricanum Glaucidium brasilianum Athene cunicularia Pseudoscops clamator Aegolius ridgwayi Steatornis caripensis Nyctibius grandis Caprimulgus vociferus Caprimulgus cayennensis Chaetura chapmani Chaetura cinereiventris Chaetura fumosa Chaetura andrei Chaetura brachyura Streptoprocne rutila Cypseloides cryptus Glaucis aeneus Doryfera ludovicae Anthracothorax veraguensis Anthracothorax nigricollis Lophornis adorabilis Hylocharis grayi Amazilia decora Amazilia handleyi Microchera albocoronata Lampornis hemileucus Haplophaedia aureliae Calliphlox bryantae Archilochus colubris Selasphorus ardens Pharomachrus auriceps Trogon clathratus Trogon bairdii Micromonacha lanceolata Pteroglossus frantzii Piculus chrysochloros Melanerpes chrysauchen Sphyrapicus varius Tyrannus dominicensis Crypturellus kerriae Formicarius rufipectus Scytalopus chocoensis Pseudotriccus pelzelni Myiodynastes chrysocephalus Polioptila schistaceigula Vireolanius eximius Tangara fucosa Caryothraustes canadensis Margarornis bellulus Grallaricula flavirostris Basileuterus ignotus Tachycineta bicolor Tachycineta thalassina Petrochelidon fulva Progne subis Progne modesta Progne tapera Stelgidopteryx serripennis Cistothorus platensis Thryothorus semibadius Catharus minimus Anthus lutescens Passer domesticus Sturnus vulgaris Vireo griseus Vireo solitarius Hylophilus flavipes Vermivora pinus Vermivora ruficapilla Parula americana Dendroica palmarum Dendroica tigrina Dendroica caerulescens Dendroica coronata Dendroica townsendi Dendroica occidentalis Dendroica cerulea Dendroica dominica Dendroica striata Dendroica discolor Oporornis agilis Geothlypis trichas Geothlypis aequinoctialis Wilsonia citrina Molothrus aeneus Molothrus bonariensis Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus Euphonia imitans Euphonia hirundinacea Ramphocelus costaricensis Piranga olivacea Piranga ludoviciana Rhodinocichla rosea Cyanerpes caeruleus Dacnis viguieri Passerina ciris Sporophila torqueola Oryzoborus nuttingi Haplospiza rustica Acanthidops bairdii Sicalis flaveola Sicalis luteola Pselliophorus tibialis Passerculus sandwichensis Ammodramus savannarum Zonotrichia leucophrys Melospiza lincolnii Spheniscus mendiculus Procellaria parkinsoni Puffinus puffinus Egretta rufescens Eudocimus ruber Neocrex colombiana Neocrex erythrops Heteroscelus incanus Numenius americanus Philomachus pugnax Larus belcheri Larus fuscus Larus cirrocephalus Larus philadelphia Phaetusa simplex Sterna superciliaris Sterna elegans Patagioenas goodsoni Columbina passerina Pyrrhura eisenmanni Coccyzus lansbergi Coccyzus pumilus Pachyramphus aglaiae Manacus candei Machetornis rixosa Dendrocincla anabatina Synallaxis albescens Cranioleuca dissita Sclerurus albigularis Lochmias nematura Formicivora grisea Cotinga ridgwayi Carpodectes antoniae Pachyramphus rufus Pipra pipra Fluvicola pica Pyrocephalus rubinus Tyrannus forficatus Contopus ochraceus Empidonax minimus Empidonax alnorum Myiobius villosus Myiophobus fasciatus Platyrinchus cancrominus Phylloscartes superciliaris Capsiempis flaveola Phaeomyias murina Phyllomyias griseiceps Leptopogon amaurocephalus Calonectris diomedea Puffinus auricularis Oceanodroma markhami Sula variegata Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Rallus longirostris Charadrius alexandrinus Recurvirostra americana Tringa flavipes Tringa solitaria Limosa haemastica Sterna forsteri Larosterna inca Gygis alba Coccyzus melacoryphus Nyctiphrynus ocellatus Cypseloides niger Chrysolampis mosquitus Empidonax hammondii Tyrannus verticalis Cotinga amabilis Vireo leucophrys Chlorophonia flavirostris Chlorospingus canigularis Sporophila bouvronides Chondestes grammacus Anthracothorax prevostii