Crepidophryne epiotica Cope 1875
Cerro Utyum Toad
Species description based on Savage (2002) and Vaughan and Mendelson (2007).
A small toad with a rather pointed nose. Males reach lengths of at least 23.4 mm, females to 37.4 mm.
Dorsal coloration ranges from gray to brown to orange with few distinct markings. The dorsal surface is covered in small, sometimes pointed warts. The pointed warts are concentrated along the lateral surface of the body and on the upper surfaces of the thighs. The paratoid glands are small and round. The head has very prominent craniel crests.
The ventral surface is brown, but can appear blueish. The ventral surface also appears warty.
The hands and feet are extensively webbed.
Many small pale-colored eggs were extracted from a preserved specimen (Trueb 1971).
Ecology behavior and evolution
Crepidophryne epiotica lives underground or under deep leaf litter and only rarely comes to the surface (Savage 2002, Vaughan and Mendelson 2007). It is restricted to deep primary forest (Savage 2002, Vaughan and Mendelson 2007).
Behavior and communication
Crepidophryne epiotica moves by walking slowly on all four limbs, or by taking small leaps (Vaughan and Mendelson 2007).
Taxonomy and systematics
Bufo epioticus, Crepidus epioticus, Nannophryne epiotica
from 5000 feet elevation on Pico Blanco (Costa Rica)
Habitat and distribution
HabitatMontane cloudforest or oak forest between 1051-2040 m.
Costa Rica, Panama
Distrubution map (IUCN)
Cope, ED. 1875. On the Batrachia and Reptilia of Costa Rica. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Series 2 8: 93-154.
Ibáñez, R, F Solís, C Jaramillo, and AS Rand. 2000. An overwiew of the herpetology of Panama. In: Johnson, JD, RG Webb, and OA Flores-Villela. Eds. Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation, pp. 159-170. The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.
Savage, JM and AG Kluge. 1961. Rediscovery of the strange Costa Rica toad, Crepidius epioticus Cope. Revista de Biología Tropical 9(1): 39-51.
Savage, JM. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Trueb, L. 1971. Phylogenetic relationships of certain Neotropical toads with the description of a new genus (Anura: Bufonidae). Los Angeles County Museum Contributions in Science 216: 1-40.
Vaughan, A and JR Mendelson. III. 2007. Taxonomy and ecology of the Central American toads of the genus Crepidophryne (Anura: Bufonidae). Copeia 2007(2): 304-314.
Vaughan, A and W Calvo. 2003. Crepidophryne epiotica (NCN). Costa Rica: Heredia. Herpetological Review 34: 257.