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Cochranella granulosa Taylor 1949

Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)
Cochranella granulosa
Male Cochranella granulosa.
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Common name

Grainy Cochran Frog

Identification

Adult

Species descriptions based on Ibanez et al (1999) and Savage (2002). Small frog, males to 29 mm, females to 32 mm.

Cochranella granulosa Adult 1 Cochranella granulosa Adult 2

Dorsal

Dorsal surface dark green and granular. Granules appear as small white spots; some black spots may also be present on the dorsal surface.

Cochranella granulosa Dorsal 1 Cochranella granulosa Dorsal 2

Ventral

Ventral surface pale white. The liver appears red in this species.

Cochranella granulosa Ventral 1

Eye

Iris pale grey-gold.

Cochranella granulosa Eye 1

Extremities

Feet are moderately webbed.

Life history

Egg

Clutches of 50-60 eggs are deposited in a single layer on the upper surfaces of leaves near the tip (Starrett 1960, McDiarmid 1975, Savage 2002). The eggs of Cochranella granulosa are black and white (Savage 2002).

Cochranella granulosa Egg 1

Tadpole

Tadpoles have an elongate body with a long, thin tail and small fins (Starrett 1960, Savage 2002). The tip of the tail sometimes has dark flecking or spots (Savage 2002). The mouth is oriented ventrally and has two upper (one partial) and three lower teethrows (Starrett 1960). Tadpoles appear pink or red due to large amounts of hemoglobin in the blood (Savage 2002). Centrolenid tadpoles are fossorial, living in the low-oxygen environment under mud and leaf litter in stream bottoms (McDiarmid and Altig 1999).

Ecology behavior and evolution

Call

A rapid creek, creek, creek (Ibanez et al 1999, Savage 2002).

Cochranella granulosa Call 1

Karyotype

2N = 20 (Duellman 1967)

Taxonomy and systematics

Taxonomy

Authority

Taylor 1949

Synonyms

Centrolenella granulosa

Type locality

Los Diamantes one mile south of Guápiles, [Cantón de Pococí, Provincia Limón,] Costa Rica

Habitat and distribution

Habitat

Lowland and premontane forest to 1500 m. Cochranella granulosa is associated with primary forest (Furlani et al 2009).

Countries

countries
Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama

Map

Cochranella granulosa distribution
Distrubution map (IUCN)

Bibliography

Altig, R, M Whiles, and CL Taylor. 2007. What do tadpoles really eat? Assessing the trophic status of an understudied and imperiled group of consumers in freshwater habitats. Freshwater Biology 52(2): 386-395.

Duellman, WE. 1967. Additional studies of chromosomes of anuran amphibians. Systematic Zoology 16(1): 38-43.

Furlani, D, G Francesco Ficetola, G Colombo, M Ugurlucan, and F De Bernardi. 2009. Deforestation and the structure of frog communities in the Humedale Terraba-Sierpe, Costa Rica. Zoological Science 26(3): 197-202.

Guayasamin, JM and E Bonaccorso. 2004. A new species of glass frog (Centrolenidae: Cochranella) from the lowlands of Northwestern Ecuador, with comments on the Cochranella granulosa group. Herpetologica: 485-494.

Guayasamin, JM, S Castroviejo-Fisher, J Avarzaguena, L Trueb, and C Vila. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships of glassfrogs (Centrolenidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 48(2):574-95.

Guyer, C and MA Donnelly. 2005. Amphibians and Reptiles of La Selva, Costa Rica and the Caribbean Slope: A Comprehensive Guide. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Hailman, JP. 1976. Oildroplets in the eyes of adult anuran amphibians: a comparative survey. Journal of Morphology 148(4); 453-468.

Hayes, MP. 1983. Predation on the adults and prehatching stages of glass frog (Centrolenidae). Biotropica 15: 74–76.

Heyer, WR. 1967. A herpetofaunal study of an ecological transect through the Cordillera de Tilarán, Costa Rica. Copeia 1967(2): 259-271

Ibañez, R, AS Rand, and CA Jaramillo. 1999. Los anfibios del Monumento Natural Barro Colorado, Parque Nacional Soberanía y areas adyacentes. Mizrachi, E and SA Pujol. Santa Fe de Bogota.

Ibáñez, R, F Solís, C Jaramillo, and AS Rand. 2000. An overwiew of the herpetology of Panama. In: Johnson, JD, RG Webb, and OA Flores-Villela. Eds. Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation, pp. 159-170. The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.

Ibanez, R. 1991. Synchronized calling in Centrolenella granulosa and Smilisca sila (Amphibia, Anura). PhD dissertation, University of Connecticut.

Ibáñez, RD. 1993. Female phonotaxis and call overlap in the neotropical glassfrog Centrolenella granulosa. Copeia 1993(3): 846-850.

Jaramillo, FE and CA Jaramillo. 1984. Algunos aspectos sobre la sistematica, conducta, ecologia, y distribucion de las ranas de cristal, genero Centrolenella (Amphibia, Anura, Centrolenidae), de Panama. Licenciatura en Biologia tesis. Universidad de Panama.

Köhler, G. 2001. Anfibios y Reptiles de Nicaragua. Herpeton, Offenbach, Germany.

Kubicki, B. 2007. Ranas de vidrio Costa Rica = Glass frogs of Costa Rica. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, INBio.

Lips, K and JM Savage. 1996. Key to the known tadpoles (Amphibia: Anura) of Costa Rica. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 31(1): 17-26

McCranie, JR and LD Wilson. 2002. The Amphibians of Honduras. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Contributions to Herpetology 19: 1-625.

McDiarmid, R.W. 1975. Glass frog romance along a tropical stream. Terra. Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History 13(4): 14-18.

Ruiz-Carranza, PM and JD Lynch. 1991. Ranas Centrolenidae de Colombia I. Propuesta de una nueva clasificacion generica. Lozania. Bogota 57: 1-30.

Ruiz-Carranza, PM and JD Lynch. 1991. Ranas Centrolenidae de Colombia III. nuevas especies de Cochranella del grupo granulosa. Lozania. Bogota 59: 1-18.

Savage, JM. 1967. A New Tree-Frog (Centrolenidae) from Costa Rica. Copeia 1967(2): 325-331.

Savage, JM. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Starrett, P. 1960. Descriptions of tadpoles of Middle American frogs. Miscellaneous Publications Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 110: 5-37.

Starrett, PH and JM Savage. 1973. The systematic status and distribution of Costa Rica glass frogs, Genus Centrolenella (Family Centrolenidae), with description of a new species. Bulletin of the Southern California 72(2): 57-78.

Taylor, EH. 1949. Costa Rican frogs of the genera Centrolene and Centrolenella. Ranas costarricenses de los género Centrolene y Centrolenella. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin 33(1): 257-270.

Taylor, EH. 1952. A review of the frogs and toads of Costa Rica. Revisión de las ranas y sapos de Costa Rica. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin: 35(1): 577-941.

Taylor, EH. 1958. Notes on Costa Rican Centrolenidae with descriptions of new forms. University of Kansas Science Bullentin 39: 41-68.

Villa, J. 1972. Anfibios de Nicaragua. Instituto Geografico Nacional and Banco Central de Nicaragua, Nicaragua.

Villa, J. 1977. A symbiotic relationship between frog (Amphibia, Anura, Centrolenidae) and fly larvae (Drosophilidae). Journal of Herpetology 11(3): 317-322

Wilson, LD and JS Townsend. 2006. The herpetofauna of the rainforests of Honduras. Caribbean Journal of Science 42(1): 88-113 .

Additional resources

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Vocalization of Cochranella granulosa
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