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Rhinella marina Linnaeus 1758

Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)
Rhinella marina
Cane Toad (Rhinella marina)
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Common name

Marine Toad, Cane Toad, Giant Toad

Identification

Adult

Species description based on Ibanez et al (1999) and Savage (2002). A very large toad (males to 145 mm, females to 175 mm).

Dorsal

Dorsal coloration varies from yellowish brown to dark brown. The dorsum is mottled in females and uniform in males. The paratoid glands are very large.

Rhinella marina Dorsal 1

Ventral

The ventral surface is cream-colored, with or without dark mottling.

Rhinella marina Ventral 1

Eye

The iris is brown.

Rhinella marina Eye 1

Extremities

The hands and feet are mostly unwebbed.

Life history

Breeding season

Breeding occurs year-round (Ibanez et al 1999). Rhinella marina uses a wide variety of aquatic habitats for breeding, ranging from temporary pools to rivers and lakes (Ibanez et al 1999).

Egg

Small, black eggs are laid in strings in shallow water (Ibanez et al 1999).

Tadpole

The tadpoles are small and black (Ibanez et al 1999). The tadpoles often aggregate while feeding during the day (Hughey pers. obs.).

Ecology behavior and evolution

Ecology

Rhinella marina nocturnal, and is commonly encountered on the ground in urban environments (Ibanez et al 1999).

Rhinella marina Ecology 1

Call

A long, low trill (Ibanez et al 1999). The call can be heard from very far away (Ibanez et al 1999).

Taxonomy and systematics

Taxonomy

  • Kingdom:Animalia

Authority

Linnaeus 1758

Synonyms

Bombinator horridus, Bombinator maculatus, Bufo agua, Bufo albicans, Bufo angustipes, Bufo brasiliensis, Bufo horribilis, Bufo horridus, Bufo humeralis, Bufo lazarus, Bufo maculiventris, Bufo marinis, Bufo marinus, Bufo marinus horribilis, Bufo marinus marinus, Bufo marinus var. fluminensis, Bufo marinus var. horribilis, Bufo marinus var. napensis, Bufo pithecodactylus, Bufo pythecodactylus, Chaunus marinus, Docidophryne agua, Docidophryne lazarus, Phrynoidis agua, Rana brasiliana, Rana gigas, Rana humeris-armata, Rana marina, Rana maxima, Rhinella marinus

Type locality

America

Habitat and distribution

Habitat

Rhinella marina inhabits both humid and dry environments, as long as there is some vegetation available for cover (to 3000 m.). It is typically more abundant in disturbed habitats and rare in pristine forest (Ibanez et al 1999).

Countries

countries
Native to: Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, Venezuela Introduced in: Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Australia, Barbados, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Haiti, Jamaica, Japan, Martinique, Montserrat, Northern Mariana Islands, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands, Taiwan, United States (Florida and Hawaii), Virgin Islands

Map

Rhinella marina distribution
Distrubution map (IUCN)

Bibliography

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Additional resources

Audio Files

Vocalization of Rhinella marina
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