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Phyllobates lugubris Schmidt 1857

Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)
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Common name

Lovely Poison Frog, Lovely Poison-arrow Frog

Caption

Phyllobates lugubris is extremely toxic.

Identification

Adult

Species description based on Savage (2002). A tiny poison frog (males to 21 mm, females to 24 mm).

Phyllobates lugubris Adult 1

Dorsal

The dorsal surface is black, with a narrow gold, yellow, or orange stripe that extends all the way around the forward part of the body--across the snout, above the eyes, back along the sides of the dorsum. The upper surfaces of the arms and legs are speckled with similar colors. A light blue or white wavy stripe extends down from below the eye to just in front of the arm.

Ventral

The ventral surface is mottle black with pale blue, green, grey or white.

Eye

The eye is black.

Life history

Egg

Eggs hatch in 9-14 days (Zimmerman 1982, Weygoldt 1987).

Tadpole

The tadpole is small and dark brown, with some darker blotches on the tail (Savage 2002). The tail is moderately long with reduced tail fins (Savage 2002). Metamorphosis takes place after 60 days (Zimmerman 1982, Weygoldt 1987).

Ecology behavior and evolution

Call

A low, raspy trill (Savage 2002)

Behavior and communication

Males are not territorial (Savage 2002). In captivity, a male and female may court for many days prior to amplexus, frequently touching one another (Zimmerman 1982, Weygoldt 1987). Males stay close to eggs, and will rehydrate them if they begin to dry out (Zimmerman 1982, Weygoldt 1987). At hatching, the male carries the tadpoles, a few at a time, to a small body of water to continue development (Zimmerman 1982, Weygoldt 1987).

Karyotype

2N = 24 (Rasotto et al 1987)

Taxonomy and systematics

Taxonomy

Authority

Schmidt 1857

Synonyms

Dendrobates lugubris, Hylaplesia lugubris, Phyllobates beatriciae

Type locality

der Weg zwischen Bocca del toro und dem Vulcan Chiriqui. . . zwischen 5000′ und 7000′ Höhe (Panama)

Habitat and distribution

Habitat

Lowland and premontane forest to 600 m.

Countries

countries
Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama

Map

Phyllobates lugubris distribution
Distrubution map (IUCN)

Bibliography

Barbour, T and ER Dunn. 1921. Herpetological novelties. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 34: 157-162.

Brocchi, P. 1882. Mission Scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amérique Centrale. Recherches Zoologiques. Troisieme Partie, 2 Section. Étude des Batraciens de lAmérique Centrale. Livraison 2. Paris: Ministère de l'Instruction Publique.

Caldwell, JP. 1994. Natural history and survival of eggs and early larval stages of Agalychnis calcarifer (Anura: Hylidae). Herpetological Natural History 2: 57-66.

Daly, JW, CW Myers, JE Warnick, and EX Albuquerque. 1980. Levels of batrachotoxin and lack of sensitivity to its action in poison-dart frogs (Phyllobates). Science 208: 1383-1385.

Daly, JW, HM Garraffo, TF Spande, VC Clark, J Ma, H Ziffer and JF Cover, Jr. 2003. Evidence for an enantioselective pumiliotoxin 7-Hydroxylase in Dendrobatid poison grogs of the genus Dendrobates. PNAS 100(19): 11092-11097.

Daly, JW. 1995. The chemistry of poisons in amphibian skin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92: 9-13.

Donnelly, MA, C Guyer, and RO de Sa. 1990. The tadpole of a dart poison frog, Phyllobates lugubris (Anura: Dendrobatidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 103: 427-431.

Dumbacher, JP, A Wako, SR Derrickson, A Samuelson, TF Spande, and JW Daly. 2004. Melyrid beetles (Choresine): a putative source for the batrachotoxin alkaloids found in poison-dart frogs and toxic passerine birds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101: 15857–15860.

Dunn, ER. 1924. Some Panamanian frogs. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 151: 1-16.

Dunn, ER. 1940. New and noteworthy herpetological material from Panama. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 92: 105-122.

Guyer, C and MA Donnelly. 2005. Amphibians and Reptiles of La Selva, Costa Rica and the Caribbean Slope: A Comprehensive Guide. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Ibáñez, R, CA Jaramillo, and FA Solis. 1994. Geographic distribution: Phyllobates lugubris. Herpetological Review 25: 161.

Ibáñez, R, F Solís, C Jaramillo, and AS Rand. 2000. An overwiew of the herpetology of Panama. In: Johnson, JD, RG Webb, and OA Flores-Villela. Eds. Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation. The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.

Leenders, T. 2001. A Guide to Amphibians And Reptiles of Costa Rica. Zona Tropical, Miami.

Lieberman, SS. 1986. Ecology of the leaf litter herpetofauna of a Neotropical rain forest La Selva, Costa Rica. Acta Zoologica Mexicana Nueva Serie 15: 1-72.

Lips, K and JM Savage. 1996. Key to the Known Tadpoles (Amphibia: Anura) of Costa Rica. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 31(1): 17-26

Lotters, S, KH Jungfer, FW Henkel, and W Schmidt. 2007. Poison Frogs. Biology, Species & Captive Maintenance. Frankfurt am Main: Edition Chimaira.

Myers, CW, JW Daly, and B Malkin. 1978. A dangerously toxic new frog (Phyllobates) used by Emberá Indians of Western Colombia, with discussion of blowgun fabrication and dart poisoning. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 161: 307-366.

Savage, JM. 1968. The dendrobatid frogs of Central America. Copeia 1968: 745-776.

Savage, JM. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Savage, JM. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Schmidt, O. 1857. Diagnosen neuer Frösche des zoologischen Cabinets zu Krakau. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe 24: 10-15.

Schmidt, O. 1858. Deliciae herpetologicae Musei Zoologici Cracoviensis, beschreibung der im K.K. Museum zu Krakau befindlichen, von J.V. Warszewitz in Neu-Granada und Bolivia Gesammelten. Ungeschwäntzen Batrachier. Denkschriften. Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klass 14: 237-258.

Silverstone, PA. 1976. A revision of the poison-arrow frogs of the genus Phyllobates Bibron in Sagra (family Dendrobatidae). Science Bulletin. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 27: 1-53.

Summers, K, E Bermingham, L Weight, S McCafferty, and L Dahistrom. 1997. Phenotypic and Genetic Divergence in Three Species of Dart-Poison Frogs With Contrasting Parental Behavior. Journal of Heredity 88 (1): 8-13.

Sunyer, J, G Paiz, DM Dehling, and G Kohler. 2009. A collection of amphibians from Río San Juan, southeastern Nicaragua. Herpetology Notes 2: 189-202.

Taylor, EH. 1952. A review of the frogs and toads of Costa Rica. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin: 35(1): 577-941.

Werner, F. 1901. Beschriebung neuer Dendrobatiden mit einer Revision dieser batrachier-Famille. Verhandlungen des Zoologisch-Botanischen Vereins in Wien 51: 627-634.

Weygoldt, P. 1987. Evolution of parental care in poison-dart frogs (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 25(1): 51-67.

Zimmermann, H and E Zimmermann. 1988. Etho-Taxonomie und zoogeographische Artengruppenbildung bei Pfeilgiftfröschen (Anura: Dendrobatidae). Salamandra 24: 125-160.

Zimmermann, H. 1982. Durch Nachzucht erhalten: Blattsteigerfrosche Phyllobates vittatus and P. lugubris. Aquarien Magazin 1982(2): 109-112.

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