Main Banner
Browse Species

Gastrotheca cornuta Boulenger 1898

Gastrotheca cornuta
Gastrotheca cornuta
Sections
Links

Common name

Horned Marsupial Frog

Identification

Adult

Species description based on Savage (2002). A large treefrog (males to 81 mm, females to 77 mm). Females have a pouch on the dorsum in which they brood their young.

Gastrotheca cornuta Adult 1 Gastrotheca cornuta Adult 2

Dorsal

Dorsal coloration varies from light to dark brown. Barring is present along the upper lip and on the upper surfaces of the arms and legs. Individuals can change color and are usually lighter during the day. The dorsal surface is smooth, except for a number of dark ridges that occur in transverse rows down the back.

Gastrotheca cornuta Dorsal 1

Ventral

The ventral surface is light brown, except for the throat, which is dark. In some individuals, the ventral surface has a pinkish cast.

Concealed surfaces

The rear surfaces of the thighs are dark brown.

Distinguishing characteristics

The horn-shaped points above the eyes are unique to this species.

Gastrotheca cornuta Distinguishing characteristics 1

Eye

The eye is dark brown at the edges, lightening to yellow or green near the center.

Life history

Breeding season

Males call from high in trees (Duellman 1983, Savage 2002).

Egg

Eggs are large, and clutch sizes are small (less than 10 eggs, Duellman 1983, Wassersug and Duellman 1984).

Metamorph juvenile

Eggs develop directly into small froglets (Duellman 1983, Wassersug and Duellman 1984).

Gastrotheca cornuta Metamorph juvenile 1 Gastrotheca cornuta Metamorph juvenile 2 Gastrotheca cornuta Metamorph juvenile 3 Gastrotheca cornuta Metamorph juvenile 4

Ecology behavior and evolution

Ecology

Gastrotheca cornuta generally lives high in the canopy (Savage 2002).

Call

A loud "bop" (Savage 2002).

Taxonomy and systematics

Taxonomy

Authority

Boulenger 1898

Synonyms

Gastrotheca ceratophrys, Gastrotheca cornutum, Hyla ceratophrys, Nototrema cornutum

Type locality

Cachabé (Ecuador)

Habitat and distribution

Habitat

Lowland and premontane forest to about 1000 m.

Countries

countries
Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama

Conservation

Iucn red list status

endangered

Population trend

decreasing

Bibliography

Almendáriz, A. and Carr., J. 1992. Technical report of herpetofauna. In: Parker T. and Carr, J. (eds), Status of forest remmants in the Cordillera de la Costa and adjacent areas of southwestern Ecuador., pp. 172 pp.. Conservation International.

Boulenger, GA. 1898. An account of the reptiles and batrachians collected by Mr. W.F.H. Rosenberg in western Ecuador. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1898: 107-126.

Brem, FMR and KR Lips. 2008. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection patterns among Panamanian amphibian species, habitats and elevations during epizootic and enzootic stages. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 81: 189–202.

Dubois, A. 1987. Miscellanea taxinomica batrachologica (I). Alytes. Paris 5: 7-95.

Duellman, WE. 1966. Taxonomic notes on some Mexican and Central American hylid frogs. University of Kansas Publications. Museum of Natural History 17: 263-279.

Duellman, WE. 1970. The hylid frogs of Middle America. 2 volumes. Monograph. Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas : 1-753.

Duellman, WE. 1983. A new species of marsupial frog (Hylidae: Gastrotheca) from Colombia and Ecuador. Copeia 1983: 868-874.

Duellman, WE. 1993. Amphibian species of the world: additions and corrections. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 121: 1-372.

Duellman, WE. 2001. The Hylid Frogs of Middle America. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Faivovich, J, CFB Haddad, PCO Garcia, DR Frost, JA Campbell, and WC Wheeler. 2005. Systematic review of the frog family Hylidae, with special reference to Hylinae: Phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History: 1-240.

Gagliardo, R, P Crump, E Griffith, J Mendelson, H Ross, and K Zippel. 2008. The principles of rapid response for amphibian conservation, using the programmes in Panama as an example. International Zoo Yearbook 42(1): 125-135.

Ibáñez, R, F Solís, C Jaramillo, and AS Rand. 2000. An overwiew of the herpetology of Panama. In: Johnson, JD, RG Webb, and OA Flores-Villela. Eds. Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation. The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.

Lips, KR, F Brem, R Brenes, JD Reeve, RA Alford, J Voyles, C Carey, L Livo, AP Pessier, and JP Collins. 2006. Emerging infectious disease and the loss of biodiversity in a Neotropical amphibian community. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103(9): 3165-3170.

Lips, KR, JD Reeve, and LR Witters. 2003. Ecological traits predicting amphibian population declines in Central America. Conservation Biology 17(4): 1078-1088.

Martin, AA and GF Watson. 1971. Life history as an aid to generic delimitation in the family Hylidae. Copeia 1971(1): 78-89.

Morales, M, A Ortiz, E Toral, and J Regalado. 2002. Monitoreo del aprovechamiento forestal con especies indicadoras de herpetofaunaen el Chocó ecuatoriano, Esmeraldas, Ecuador. Componente de monitoreo biológico, Proyecto SUBIR-CARE. Informe Final Fase III, pp. 104-161. EcoCiencia, Quito, Ecuador.

Peters, JA. 1955. Herpetological type localities in Ecuador. Revista Ecuatoriana de Entomología y Parasitología 2: 335-352.

Ron, SR, JM Guayasamin, LA Coloma, and P Menéndez-Guerrero. In press. Status and Decline of Amphibians of Ecuador. In: Heatwole, H and JW Wilkinson. Eds. Amphibian Biology. Decline and Conservation. SurreyBeatty and Sons Pty. Ltd., Australia.

Ruiz-Carranza, PM, MC Ardila-Robayo, and JD Lynch. 1996. Lista actualizada de la fauna de Amphibia de Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales: 365-415.

Savage, JM. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Solórzano-López, A, WW Lamar, and L Porras. 1997. The marsupial frog Gastrotheca cornuta (Amphibia: Hylidae) in Isthmian Central America. Revista de Biología Tropical 45(4): 1694.

Stejneger, L. 1911. Descriptions of three new batrachians from Costa Rica and Panama. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 41: 285-288.

Wassersug, RJ and WE Duellman. 1984. Oral structures and their development in egg-brooding hylid frog embryos and larvae: evolutionary and ecological implications. Journal of morphology 182(1): 1-37.